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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

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  1. 12 Chapter 12 Adaptations over Time

  2. Table of Contents 12 Chapter: Adaptations over Time Section 1: Ideas About Evolution Section 2: Clues About Evolution Section 3: The Evolution of Primates

  3. 12.1 Ideas About Evolution 12.1 A. Early Models of Evolution 1. A species is a group of organisms that share similar characteristics and can reproduce among themselves to produce fertile offspring.

  4. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 A. Early Models of Evolution 2. The characteristics of a species that are passed from parent to offspring are called inherited characteristics. 3. Change in these inherited characteristics over time is evolution.

  5. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 B. Hypothesis of Acquired Characteristics 1. In 1809, Jean Baptiste de Lamarck suggested that characteristics, or traits, developed during a parent organism’s lifetime are inherited by its offspring. 2. His hypothesis is called the inheritance of acquired characteristics.

  6. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 B. Hypothesis of Acquired Characteristics 3. Scientists collected data on traits that are passed from parents to offspring. 4. The data showed that traits developed during a parent’s lifetime, such as large muscles built by hard work or exercise, are not passed on to offspring. 5. The evidence did not support Lamarck’s hypothesis.

  7. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 C. Darwin’s Model of Evolution 1. In December 1831, Charles Darwin set out on a journey from England that took him to the Galapagos Islands.

  8. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 C. Darwin’s Model of Evolution 2. He was amazed by the variety of life on the Galápagos Islands, which are about 1,000 km from the coast of Ecuador.

  9. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 C. Darwin’s Model of Evolution 3. Darwin noted that the species on the islands were similar in many ways to the species he had seen on the mainland. However, he observed different traits in many species on the islands as well.

  10. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 C. Darwin’s Model of Evolution 4. Darwin studied several species and develop hypotheses to explain the differences in traits he observed.

  11. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 D. Darwin’s Observations 1. Darwin observed 13 species of finches on the Galápagos Islands. 2. He noticed that all 13 species were similar, except for differences in body size, beak shape, and eating habits.

  12. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 D. Darwin’s Observations 3. He also noticed that all the Galápagos finch species were similar to one finch he had seen on the South American coast.

  13. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 D. Darwin’s Observations 4. Darwin reasoned that the Galápagos finches must have had to compete for food. 5. Finches with beak shapes that allowed them to eat available food survived longer and produced more offspring than finches without those beak shapes. 6. After many generations, these groups of finches became separate species.

  14. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 E. Natural Selection • In the mid 1800s, Darwin developed a theory of evolution that is accepted by most scientists today. • He described his ideas in a book called “On the Origin of Species.”

  15. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 F. Darwin’s Theory 1. Darwin’s ideas became known as the theory of evolution by natural selection. 2. Natural selection means that organisms with traits best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.

  16. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 F. Darwin’s Theory 3. A population is all of the individuals of a species living in the same area. 4. Members of a large population compete for living space, food, and other resources. 5. Those that are best able to survive are more likely to reproduce and pass on their traits to the next generation.

  17. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 G. Variation and Adaptation 1. A variation is an inherited trait that makes an individual organism different from other members of its species. 2. Variations result from permanent changes, or mutations, in an organism’s genes. 3. Some gene changes produce small variations, such as differences in the shape of human hairlines.

  18. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 G. Variation and Adaptation 4. Other gene changes produce large variations, such as an albino animal in a population of normal colored animals. 5. If individuals with these variations continue to survive and reproduce over many generations, a new species can evolve.

  19. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 G. Variation and Adaptation 6. An adaptation is any variation that makes an organism better suited to its environment. 7. Camouflage (KA muh flahj) is an adaptation. A camouflaged organism blends into its environment and makes it easier for the organism to hide, increasing the chance to survive and reproduce.

  20. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 H. Changes in the Sources of Genes 1. Over time, the genetic makeup of a species might change it appearance. 2. Many kinds of environmental factors help bring about these changes. 3. When individuals of the same species move into or out of an area, they might bring in or remove genes and variations.

  21. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 I. Geographic Isolation 1. Sometimes mountains, lakes, or other geological features isolate a small number of individuals from the rest of a population. 2. Over several generations, variations that do not exist in the larger population might begin to be more common in the isolated population.

  22. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 I. Geographic Isolation 3. Also, gene mutations can occur that add variations to populations. Over time, the two populations can become so different that they no longer can breed with each other.

  23. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 J. The Speed of Evolution 1. Many scientists hypothesize that evolution occurs slowly, perhaps over tens or hundreds of millions of years. 2. Other scientists hypothesize that evolution can occur quickly. 3. Most scientists agree that evidence supports both of these models.

  24. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 K. Gradualism 1. The model that describes evolution as a slow, ongoing process by which one species changes to a new species is known as gradualism. 2. According to the gradualism model, a continuing series of mutations and variations over time will result in a new species. 3. A series of intermediate forms can indicate a gradual change from the earliest species to today’s species.

  25. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 L. Punctuated Equilibrium 1. According to the punctuated equilibrium model, rapid evolution comes about when the mutation of a few genes results in the appearance of a new species over a relatively short period of time.

  26. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 L. Punctuated Equilibrium Today 2. Evolution by the punctuated equilibrium model can occur over a few thousand or million years, and sometimes even faster. 3. For example, many bacteria have changed in a few decades. 4. The antibiotic penicillin originally came from the fungus Penicillium. 5. But many bacteria species that were once easily killed by penicillin no longer are harmed by it.

  27. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 L. Punctuated Equilibrium Today 6. Penicillin has been in use since 1943. 7. Just four years later, in 1947, a species of bacteria that causes pneumonia and other infections already had developed resistance to the drug. 8. By the 1990s, several disease-producing bacteria had become resistant to penicillin and many other antibiotics.

  28. Ideas About Evolution 12.1 L. Punctuated Equilibrium Today 9. When penicillin was used to kill bacteria, those with the penicillin-resistant variation survived, reproduced, and passed this trait to their offspring. 10. Over a period of time, this bacteria population became penicillin-resistant.

  29. Section Check 1 Question 1 _______ is the change in inherited characteristics over time. A. adaptation B. evolution C. gradualism D. variation

  30. Section Check 1 Question 2 Who developed the theory of natural selection? A. Alfred Russell Wallace B. Charles Darwin C. Gregor Mendel D. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck

  31. Section Check 1 Question 3 The changes observed in camels over time have been traced by studying _______.

  32. End of Chapter Summary File