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  1. KONSEP KOS Definisi dan Kategori Kos Ciri Kos Bagi Institusi Pendidikan Konsep Asas Pengurusan Kewangan Berkesan: Ekonomi, Efisyen, Efektif Pengukuran Dalam Pengurusan Kewangan: Analisis Kos, Produktiviti

  2. THE NATURE OF COSTS • ‘Costs’ is resources foregone to acquire other human or physical resources to achieve an objective. (eg: people, premises, time within the school day or personal time, intangible resources - morale, health, motivation, energy of teachers, students) • Costs can involve both financial and non-financial elements • Non-financial costs : teachers time, students’ travel, students’ earning foregone, students’ nutrition, home electricity, vandalism • Costing is the art of measuring the consumption of resources in financial terms • Costing of inputs is much easier than costing of processes or outcomes • Costing is also difficult because it is often by no means clear which resources should actually be included.

  3. KOS MELEPAS (OPPORTUNITY COSTS) • The cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action. Put another way, the benefits you could have received by taking an alternative action. • Opportunity cost refers to what you have to give up to buy what you want in terms of other goods or services. When economists use the word "cost," we usually mean opportunity cost. • When economists refer to the "opportunity cost" of a resource, they mean the value of the next-highest-valued alternative use of that resource

  4. COST CLASSIFICATION • Direct and indirect costs • Prime and subsidiary costs • Variable and fixed costs • Controllable, sunk, and idle costs

  5. DIRECT AND INDIRECT COSTS • Direct costs are costs that can be easily identified with a cost centre (it is responsible for its own budget and that all expenditures incurred by it are debited to it). • Indirect costs are costs that cannot be so identified and have to be apportioned (overhead).

  6. PRIME AND SUBSIDIARY COSTS • Costs between resources related to a school’s prime educational function and those relating to its subsidiary administrative, transport and catering functions. • The division of total school costs into such categories, with percentages for each, is important. • It makes it possible to monitor the percentage over years and see if the proportionate and actual expenditure on the subsidiary categories is shrinking or rising.

  7. VARIABLE AND FIXED COSTS • Variable costs are those that change in proportion to the quantitative changes in the processes of the industry • Fixed costs are those that remain unchanged for a given period of time, despite fluctuations in the volume of the activity undertaken. • It is particularly important at a time of falling rolls, when a number of costs may remain completely or relatively fixed, and so squeeze the finance available for variable costs

  8. CONTROLLABLE, SUNK AND IDLE COSTS • Controllable Costs Who controls costs? Budgetary responsibility is aimed at identifying the person who has the most effective cost control over the item concerned. • Sunk Costs Costs may not really be controllable because expenditure cannot be reduced or recovered – sunk costs. • Idle Costs Costs may not be fully controllable because premises or other resources are underused – idle costs

  9. UNIT COST OF EDUCATION • Cost per unit is a measure of a company's cost to build or create one unit of product • Units can be students, classes, schools, courses, time, hours, lessons or days • Cost per unit = (TOTAL COST) / UNITS The ability to calculate costs for a unit or measured amount of a product or service is important in many aspects of budgeting and cost management. In the open and distance learning sub-sector, unit costing is necessary for the following tasks: • to determine appropriate fee levels • to compare costs of alternative ways of delivering a particular course

  10. COST CHARACTERISTICS OF SCHOOL (KNIGHT, 1993) • Most schools are ‘non-profit’ organisations. • Schools are service organisations and perform a social as well as an economic function. • School cost structure are very stable • Schools work within a very slow cycle. • School unit costs tend to rise when education become more technical and science-centred. • Schools are very labour-intensive • School calendar cause high costs • Schools are constrained by legislation, regulations, policies and attitudes that have often developed without consideration for costs, and yet which considerably affect them.

  11. Konsep Asas Pengurusan Kewangan Berkesan (Knight, 1993) • Economy • Efficiency, cost-efficiency • Effectiveness, cost effectiveness • Value for money

  12. KEY CONCEPTS FOR EFFECTIVE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ECONOMY • the purchase of a given standard of good or services at lowest cost. • careful use of resources, frugality and good housekeeping. • It implies the avoidance of expenditure above a reasonable minimum or of a speculative sort • Only relates to expenditure, and not to its use Eg: • repair of equipment rather than a new purchase • Purchase of equipment only after thorough survey of the market and negotiation of discount

  13. KEY CONCEPTS FOR EFFECTIVE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT EFFICIENCY • The fullest possible attainment of specific objectives or standards • the achievement of given outcomes at least cost Eg: • A heating system which brings all rooms to the desired temperature; • A security system which detects intruders effectively • A clerical system which collects payments for hire of school premises promptly

  14. Cost-efficiency • effectiveness – the matching of results with objectives • Relates efficiency to its cost. • More cost-efficient – greater efficiency at the same cost or the same efficiency at lower cost Eg: • A new boiler which provides the same heat more economically • Reduced expenditure on an administrator rather than a teacher to administer school examinations • Preventive maintenance of buildings which avoids long-term maintenance costs

  15. Effectiveness • is the fullest possible attainment of the goals and objectives of the school. Eg: • Improved performance, possibly against performance indicators, such as improved examination results or test scores (but only if this is not caused by some external factor such as improved quality of student intake) • Improved student attitudes and behaviour; • Better parent and community relations • Improved school environment

  16. Cost-effectiveness • Relates effectiveness to the cost incurred – greater effectiveness for the same or low additional costs, or the same effectiveness at lower costs. Eg: • Expenditure on promotion of the school bring increased enrolment; • Purchase of a minibus brings expansion in educational visits and off-campus learning • Peer tutoring improves student performance with little extra cost.


  18. PRODUKTIVITI • increasing outcomes for each unit of input (RM, teacher hours, student hours) • Higher school productivity implies one of the following • Cheaper education, the same for less cost • Increased education, more for the same cost • Speedier education, the same in less time

  19. PRODUCTIVITY IN EDUCATION • Concerned with the quantity and quality of educational outcomes that result from a given investment resources. • The research focus on estimating an “education production function” that links school inputs to educational outcomes and identifies the impact of changes in inputs (e.g., teachers on student outcomes (e.g., achievement as measured by test scores)

  20. ANALISIS KOS • Analisis kos faedah (Cost-benefit analysis) The process of weighing the total expected costs vs. the total expected benefits of one or more actions in order to choose the most profitable option • Keberkesanan kos (Cost-effectiveness ) Cost-effectiveness relates effectiveness to the cost incurred – greater effectiveness for the same or low additional cost, or the same effectiveness at lower cost.