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ADEPT KOS Activities. KOS = Knowledge Organization Systems Outline KOS in DLs what has been done what activities are planned the main groups involved the problems being faced. DATA STORE OF OBJECTS. Libraries Collections. SERVICES. ACCESSING ANALYZING ARCHIVING CATALOGING

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ADEPT KOS Activities

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adept kos activities
ADEPT KOS Activities

KOS = Knowledge Organization Systems


  • KOS in DLs
  • what has been done
  • what activities are planned
  • the main groups involved
  • the problems being faced

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

digital library components

























Digital Library Components




ADEPT Retreat November 2002

digital gazetteer essentials

Geographic Place


(controlled vocabulary)

Digital Gazetteer Essentials


  • None of these elements are unique identifiers of a particular place

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

kos generalization










KOS Generalization

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

kos what has been done
KOS: what has been done
  • Knowledge Base (KB)
  • Gazetteers
    • ADL Gazetteer Content Standard XML Schema
    • ADL Gazetteer Service Protocol
    • ADL Gazetteer (4.2 million entries; two user interfaces)
    • Prototype duplicate detection process
    • In process development of a gazetteer ingest system
  • Thesauri
    • ADL Feature Type Thesaurus
    • ADL Thesaurus Protocol
  • Textual Geospatial Integration (TGI) Project
    • High-level process design
    • Initial results from experiment with GeoRef records

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

tgi service
TGI Service


text document

potential names, types, coordinates

type thesaurus



gazetteer entries (known places)


ranked footprints and placenames

“best” name(s)


composite footprint

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

main applications of tgi
Main applications of TGI
  • Query enhancement
    • Placenames -> footprints and/or additional placenames
    • Footprints -> placenames
  • Cataloging assistance
    • Textual evidence -> footprint representing what the object is “about”

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

example georef record
Example GeoRef Record

Structure and petrography of the schist of Skookum Gulch, Callahan-Yreka area, eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern California

<key>blueschist | California | Callahan California | foliation | Klamath Mountains | melange | metamorphic rocks |Ordovician | Paleozoic | petrology | schists | Silurian | Siskiyou County California | Skookum Gulch | United States | Yreka California</key>

<ab>The schist of Skookum Gulch (SSG) is an informal name applied to a fault-bounded melange composed mainly of schistose metamorphic rocks and less abundant sedimentary and igneous rocks located in the eastern Klamath Mountains of Northern California. The SSG features outcrops of lawsonite+sodic amphibole blueschist and epidote+sodic amphibole rocks transitional to the greenschist facies. Isotopic dating indicates that the schist was metamorphosed during the Ordovician. The SSG is the oldest known Paleozoic blueschist-bearing melange in California and one of the oldest preserved blueschist terranes in North America. Tonalitic rocks associated with the schist have Early Cambrian ages and are among the oldest rocks yet dated within the Klamath Mountains. Field relations indicate that the schist of Skookum Gulch is a complex tectonic melange composed of metavolcanic, carbonate, and metasedimentary blocks and lenses of diverse sizes and shapes dispersed without apparent stratigraphic coherency in a sheared matrix of clastic to pelitic schist, metavolcanic schist, and discontinuous thin lenses of marble. Rocks of the matrix have been metamorphosed to chlorite-grade greenschist facies, whereas the blocks have been metamorphosed under a variety of pressure-temperature conditions. Some blocks have been feebly metamorphosed and retain features of the original protolith material; others have been thoroughly recrystallized under blueschist, transitional, and greenschist facies conditions. Blueschist blocks within the schistose matrix reveal six deformation events, (Dl-D6): four are folding events, and at least two are ductile and brittle shear deformations. One period of metamorphism under blueschist-facies conditions is recorded in the blueschist blocks. The blocks lack evidence of prograde, greenschist-facies overprinting. Schistose rocks of the matrix are less deformed than the blueschist blocks. Matrix schists show at least two phases of folding. The predominant foliation is the result of tranposition of an early foliation or compositional layering. Other deformations include kink folding, ductile shearing, and brittle fracturing. The polydeformed tectonic blocks are hypothesized to have been incorporated into the melange matrix along a system of faults and rotated into a preferred alignment with the pervasive foliation of the matrix during D3. Feebly deformed and metamorphosed blocks such as chert, marble, and tonalite were incorporated prior to the time of brittle shearing.</ab>


ADEPT Retreat November 2002

lookup example gazetteer
Lookup Example: Gazetteer

Place Name exact partial

Skookum Gulch 1 0

Klamath Mountains 1 0

Northern California 0 1

California 1 492

Callahan* 1 1

Silurian 0 5

Siskiyou County* 1 14

United States 1 273

Yreka* 1 12

North America 0 8

*within footprint of California

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

tgi evaluation example

Derived footprint

  • Eastern Klamath Mountains
  • Area of Callahan-Yreka
  • Skookum Gulch
TGI Evaluation Example

Yreka in California

Skookum Gluch

Klamath Mountains

Callahan in California


Siskiyou County in California

United States

  • Additional placenames
    • Shasta Butte City
    • Yreka City
    • Thompson's Dry Diggings

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

the light at the end of the tunnel
The Light at the End of the Tunnel
  • You submit:
    • a document (could be a query)
  • You get:
    • geospatial location + placenames
      • Best
      • Also-rans
      • Alternatives
  • You apply this output to your processes

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

kos what activities are planned
KOS: what activities are planned
  • Knowledge Base for ADEPT
  • TGI
    • Computer processing of geoparsing output to derive estimated footprints for GeoRef records
    • Evaluate similarity of derived footprints to those assigned by GeoRef
    • Refine TGI process based on evaluation results
    • Run additional textual objects through the TGI process
    • Publish a TGI service specification

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

kos what activities are planned13
KOS: what activities are planned
  • Gazetteers
    • Duplicate detection and ingest software for gazetteers
    • Augmentation of ADL Gazetteer with polygonal footprints
    • Improved database and searching support for ADL Gazetteer
    • Growth of a network of distributed gazetteers
    • Use of Gazetteer Protocol in ADL/ADEPT as basis for new gazetteer client
    • Proposal for ITR funding to support gazetteer research and development
  • Thesauri
    • Use the thesaurus protocol in an ADL/ADEPT client – e.g., to access the Feature Type Thesaurus from a Gazetteer client

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

kos the main groups involved
KOS: the main groups involved
  • Knowledge Base
    • Knowledge Organization Team
    • San Diego Supercomputer (SDSC)
    • DLESE
  • TGI
    • Terry Smith, Jim Frew, Linda Hill, Greg Janée
    • Illinois Institute of Technology
  • Gazetteers
    • Gazetteer Development Team
    • ESRI
    • ECAI
    • University of Redlands, MSGIS program
  • Thesauri
    • Greg Janée and Linda Hill
    • USGS Gateway Vocabulary Team

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

kos the problems being faced
KOS: the problems being faced
  • KOS
    • Integration of KOS as a class of objects into DL architecture
      • User interface issues
      • Managing change through time for KOS and collections
    • Balance of effort between building actual content and building a suite of tools for use by others
    • Flexible, customizable tools for building KOS
    • Establishing/implementing standards for KOS structures/representations
    • Handling data and queries in multiple languages and scripts
    • Building time-related data (e.g., historical data in gazetteer entries) & better presentation of time range searching in clients

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

kos the problems being faced16
KOS: the problems being faced
  • Gazetteers
    • Which model to follow: humongous centralized ADL gazetteer vs. distributed gazetteers?
    • Should we be building ingest systems to support building “personal” gazetteers entry-by-entry or ingesting blocks of gazetteer data from other sources or both?
    • Spatial data representation in gazetteers
      • Are bounding box generalizations ‘good enough’?
      • What is the processing cost for spatial matching using generalized polygons that are more faithful to shape?
    • ‘Qualified’ placenames
      • How to provide administrative parent for unqualified placenames in gazetteer
        • Add type of relationship linking place to its ‘conventional’ administrative parent
        • Use ‘contained-in’ search operator to find the administrative entities containing the place

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

kos the problems being faced17
KOS: the problems being faced
  • TGI
    • Identifying causes of success and failure in automatic footprint generation
      • Effect of density/frequency of spatial references in the text
      • Effect of the geoparsing process applied
      • Effect of analysis process that derives the best estimate
      • Effect of the quality of the gazetteer and feature type thesaurus
    • Value of set of additional placenames for text retrieval

ADEPT Retreat November 2002

related urls
Related URLs
  • KOS as DL components
    • Position paper for Classification Research workshop:
  • Knowledge Base
  • Textual Geospatial Integration
    • Powerpoint presentation:
  • Gazetteers
    • ADL Gazetteer Development page:
  • Thesauri
    • Gazetteer Service Protocol:

ADEPT Retreat November 2002