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Setting the Stage: On Garbage Cans and Institutional Differentiation. Glen A. Jones Ontario Research Chair in Postsecondary Education Policy and Measurement, Higher Education Group, OISE/UT. Outline. An introduction to institutional diversity Possible approaches for Ontario Garbage cans ….

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setting the stage on garbage cans and institutional differentiation

Setting the Stage: On Garbage Cans and Institutional Differentiation

Glen A. Jones

Ontario Research Chair in Postsecondary Education Policy and Measurement,

Higher Education Group, OISE/UT

outline
Outline
  • An introduction to institutional diversity
  • Possible approaches for Ontario
  • Garbage cans …
institutional diversity
Institutional Diversity
  • Research literature (with Birbaum’s 1983 book as a foundational work)
  • Accessibility is the key theme/rationale
    • Diverse students have diverse needs
    • Creating new, less-expensive institutional types to address the needs of mass higher education
from an international perspective
From an international perspective …
  • The “university” is not a universal institutional type
  • Huge variations in “non-university” institutions (often degree-granting, limited research activity)
where do first year students go
Where do first year students go?

Derived from Taylor et al (2008), Non-University Higher Education in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer.

from an international perspective1
From an international perspective …
  • Without government involvement, pathways between differentiated institutions are unlikely to emerge.
  • Without government involvement, academic drift will occur.
  • Public policy challenge is to find an appropriate balance (enough, but not too much, diversity)
ontario in the 1960s
Ontario in the 1960s
  • Expanded the existing university sector and created new, similar universities
  • Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology created as comprehensive PSE institutions but without a transfer function
  • Created two quite different policy and regulatory environments for the two sectors
ontario universities
Ontario Universities
  • Quite limited systemic (type/mission) diversity within the Ontario university sector
  • Systemic diversity has actually declined over time (OISE, Ryerson Polytechnic, OCAD, Algoma)
ontario caats
Ontario CAATs
  • Common institutional type distinct from universities
  • Increasing programmatic diversity, especially in relation to degree-granting
  • Limited “traditional transfer” and major concerns with “vocational transfer”
ontario system
Ontario System
  • High levels of participation
  • Two distinct sectors, but with limited diversity within the university sector
  • There has never been a system-wide plan, or vision/strategy (decisions have tended to be incremental and ad hoc)
  • How to address the current issue?
we were asked
We were asked:
  • To review the evolution of the Ontario system and determine whether, compared with other systems, there were gaps.
  • What are some of the policy options that the government might consider in addressing the future needs of the province?
options to address anticipated demand
Options to address anticipated demand?
  • Create Satellite Campuses of Existing Universities
  • Create New Universities of a New Type Focusing on Undergraduate Study and With a Limited Role in Research
options
Options …

3.Providing selected colleges with a new substantial role in baccalaureate programming

4. Improving transfer arrangements

5. Create an open university

organized anarchy
Organized Anarchy
  • Problematic preferences
  • Unclear technology
  • Fluid participation
garbage can model1
Garbage Can Model
  • Rather than a rational, orderly process, decision-making takes place in an environment where there are separate streams of participants, problems, solutions, and choice opportunities.
  • This is a wonderful example …
participants
Participants
  • Come and go …
    • Many have specific problems or solutions that they carry with them
    • The participants in this discussion include a wide range of individuals representing institutional and regional interests, as well as individuals who have particular views about solutions and problems
problem stream
Problem stream …
  • Predicted demand for increased access to degree programs
  • Current model of comprehensive institutions is expensive
  • Quality of undergraduate education
  • Limited institutional diversity
  • Regions without universities (historical injustices)
problem stream1
Problem stream …
  • Some existing institutions face a problem declining demand
  • College-university transfer
  • Failure to differentiate “research universities”
  • Access for certain groups/populations
solution stream
Solution stream …
  • Primarily teaching, undergraduate university
  • Increase missions/status of some existing colleges
  • On-line institute
  • Open university
  • Improve transfer arrangements
solution stream1
Solution Stream
  • Create satelite campuses of existing institutions (perhaps those that are concerned about future enrolment)
  • BUMBY
choice opportunities
Choice opportunities …
  • Occasions when organizations are expected (or think they are expected) to make decisions
  • In the absence of clear priorities or strategies, choice opportunities become “garbage cans” where problems and solutions are dumped and become stuck to each other.
and so
And so …
  • We need to step away from a garbage can approach
  • Today is about engaging in a public discussion of problems and solutions
  • We need an integrated plan or strategy for Ontario higher education that will form the basis for informed decisions about moving forward.
thank you

Thank you

gjones@oise.utoronto.ca

www.glenjones.ca

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