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AP Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium Acid Base and Solubility Equilibria HW:7, 15, 29, 39, 43. 67. HC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ). H 3 O + ( aq ) + C 2 H 3 O 2 − ( aq). 17.1 - The Common-Ion Effect. Consider a solution of acetic acid:

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AP Chapter 17


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    1. AP Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Equilibrium Acid Base and Solubility Equilibria HW:7, 15, 29, 39, 43. 67

    2. HC2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + C2H3O2−(aq) 17.1 - The Common-Ion Effect • Consider a solution of acetic acid: • If acetate ion is added to the solution, Le Châtelier says the equilibrium will shift to the left.

    3. The Common-Ion Effect “The extent of ionization of a weak electrolyte is decreased by adding to the solution a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with the weak electrolyte.” AKA – adding a common ion decreases the proportion of ionized substance

    4. Example 17.1: What is the pH of a solution made by adding 0.30 mole of acetic acid and 0.30 mol of sodium acetate to enough water to make 1.0 L of solution? Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 (can use assumption) pH = 1.8 x 10-5

    5. The Common-Ion Effect Calculate the fluoride ion concentration and pH of a solution that is 0.20 M in HF and 0.10 M in HCl. Ka for HF is 6.8  10−4.

    6. HF(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + F−(aq) The Common-Ion Effect Because HCl, a strong acid, is also present, the initial [H3O+] is not 0, but rather 0.10 M.

    7. (0.10) (x) (0.20) 6.8  10−4 = (0.20) (6.8  10−4) (0.10) The Common-Ion Effect = x 1.4  10−3 = x

    8. The Common-Ion Effect • Therefore, [F−] = x = 1.4  10−3 [H3O+] = 0.10 + x = 0.10 + 1.4  10−3 = 0.10 M • So, pH = −log (0.10) pH = 1.00

    9. 17.2 – Buffered Solutions / Henderson – Hasselbach Equation • Option for Acid – Base common ion / buffer calculations • Must have both of an acid / base pair • Example – Acid with its conjugate base • Example – Base with its conjugate acid

    10. Ka = [H3O+] [A−] [HA] HA + H2O H3O+ + A− Henderson - Hasselbach Consider the equilibrium constant expression for the dissociation of a generic acid, HA:

    11. [A−] [HA] [H3O+] Ka = base [A−] [HA] −log [H3O+] + −log −log Ka = pKa acid pH Henderson - Hasselbach Rearranging slightly, this becomes Taking the negative log of both side, we get

    12. [base] [acid] pKa = pH − log [base] [acid] pH = pKa + log Henderson - Hasselbach • So • Rearranging, this becomes • This is the Henderson–Hasselbalchequation.

    13. Buffers: • Solutions of a weak conjugate acid-base pair. • They are particularly resistant to pH changes, even when strong acid or base is added.

    14. Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation What is the pH of a buffer that is 0.12 M in lactic acid, HC3H5O3, and 0.10 M in sodium lactate? Ka for lactic acid is 1.4  10−4.

    15. [base] [acid] (0.10) (0.12) pH = pKa + log pH = −log (1.4  10−4) + log Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation pH= 3.85 + (−0.08) pH= 3.77

    16. Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation What is the pH of a buffer that is 0.12 M in lactic acid, HC3H5O3, and 0.10 M in sodium lactate? Ka for lactic acid is 1.4  10−4. Could have done this using Ka expression:

    17. Buffers If a small amount of hydroxide is added to an equimolar solution of HF in NaF, for example, the HF reacts with the OH− to make F− and water.

    18. Buffers If acid is added to the HF in NaF, the F− reacts to form HF and water.

    19. Buffers • Calculate the pH of a 1.0 M acetic acid with 1.0 M sodium acetate solution.

    20. pH Range • The pH range is the range of pH values over which a buffer system works effectively. • It is best to choose an acid with a pKa close to the desired pH.

    21. When Strong Acids or Bases Are Added to a Buffer… …it is safe to assume that all of the strong acid or base is consumed in the reaction.

    22. Addition of Strong Acid or Base to a Buffer • Determine how the neutralization reaction affects the amounts of the weak acid and its conjugate base in solution. • Use the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation to determine the new pH of the solution. • Be careful – if the strong acid or base is left over, use that for the calculation

    23. Calculating pH Changes in Buffers A buffer is made by adding 0.300 mol HC2H3O2 and 0.300 mol NaC2H3O2 to enough water to make 1.00 L of solution. Ka of Acetic Acid is 1.8 x 10-5. Calculate the pH of the original solution. Calculate the pH of this solution after 0.020 mol of NaOH is added.

    24. [base] [acid] pH = pKa + log Calculating pH Changes in Buffers Before the reaction, since mol HC2H3O2 = mol C2H3O2− pH = pKa pH= −log (1.8  10−5) = 4.74 1 0

    25. Calculating pH Changes in Buffers The 0.020 mol NaOH will react with 0.020 mol of the acetic acid: HC2H3O2(aq) + OH−(aq)  C2H3O2−(aq) + H2O(l)

    26. (0.320) (0. 280) pH = 4.74 + log Calculating pH Changes in Buffers Now use the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation to calculate the new pH: pH = 4.74 + 0.06 pH = 4.80

    27. 17.3 - Titration A known concentration of base (or acid) is slowly added to a solution of acid (or base).

    28. Titration A pH meter or indicators are used to determine when the solution has reached the equivalence point, at which the stoichiometric amount of acid equals that of base.

    29. Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base From the start of the titration to near the equivalence point, the pH goes up slowly.

    30. Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base Just before and after the equivalence point, the pH increases rapidly.

    31. Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base At the equivalence point, moles acid = moles base stoichiometrically, and the solution contains only water and the salt from the cation of the base and the anion of the acid.

    32. Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base As more base is added, the increase in pH again levels off.

    33. Calculation of SA + SB:

    34. Titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base • Unlike in the previous case, the conjugate base of the acid affects the pH when it is formed. • The pH at the equivalence point will be >7. • Phenolphthalein is commonly used as an indicator in these titrations.

    35. Titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base At each point below the equivalence point, the pH of the solution during titration is determined from the amounts of the acid and its conjugate base present at that particular time.

    36. Titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base With weaker acids, the initial pH is higher and pH changes near the equivalence point are more subtle.

    37. Calculation – Weak Acid + Strong Base

    38. Titration of a Weak Base with a Strong Acid • The pH at the equivalence point in these titrations is < 7. • Methyl red is the indicator of choice.

    39. [base] [acid] pH = pKa + log On Titration Curves -Greatest pH change occurs at the equivalence point -Pick an indicator that changes at that pH At ½ Veq…

    40. Titrations of Polyprotic Acids In these cases there is an equivalence point for each dissociation.

    41. Indicators • Endpoint vs. Equivalence Point • Look at color change as well.

    42. Color of indicator when BELOW LOWER pH Range value Color of indicator when ABOVE HIGHER pH Range value Indicators Red Yellow Orange Example: Thymol Blue: When pH less than 1.2 When pH greater than 2.8 When pH between 1.2 – 2.8

    43. BaSO4(s) Ba2+(aq) + SO42−(aq) 17.4 - Solubility Equilibrium Consider the equilibrium that exists in a saturated solution of BaSO4 in water:

    44. Solubility Products The equilibrium constant expression for this equilibrium is Ksp = [Ba2+] [SO42−] where the equilibrium constant, Ksp, is called the solubility product.

    45. Solubility Products • Ksp is not the same as solubility. • Solubility is generally expressed as the mass of solute dissolved in 1 L (g/L) or 100 mL (g/mL) of solution, or in mol/L (M).

    46. BaSO4(s) Ba2+(aq) + SO42−(aq) 17.5 - Factors Affecting Solubility • The Common-Ion Effect • If one of the ions in a solution equilibrium is already dissolved in the solution, the equilibrium will shift to the left and the solubility of the salt will decrease.

    47. 17.5 - Factors Affecting Solubility • pH • If a substance has a basic anion, it will be more soluble in an acidic solution. • Substances with acidic cations are more soluble in basic solutions.

    48. 17.5 – Factors Affecting Solubility • Formation of Complex Ions • Complex Ions • Metal ions can act as Lewis acids and form complex ions with Lewis bases in the solvent.