THz-Bridge-Workshop Presentation of COST 281: „Challenge through new technologies“ September, 30th – October, 2nd 2002 Palazzo dei Congressi - Capri - Italy
The „Research Agenda“ • Emerging Technologies • Current research activities • Ongoing research and funding • Actual state of knowledge • Priorities for further research
Non ionizing Ionizing 300.000 km 300 km 300 m 30 cm 0,3 mm 0,3 µm 0,3 nm Wavelength Frequency 1 Hz 1 KHz 1 MHz 1 GHz 1 THz 1 PHz 1018Hz Photon Energy (eV) 10-11 10-9 10-6 10-3 1,7 3,1 120 Micro- waves Infra- red x-Ray, Gamma Radiation Static Field UV ELF RF
New Opportunities in Mobile Radio Applications The „Research Agenda“ Medium Speed (GPRS/WAP) • Mobile Internet • Online Banking • Electronic Commerce • Traffic Information • Online Games • Live Radio • Music-Player and Downloads • Video Control High Speed (UMTS) • Video Conferences • Video Consultation Hours • Films on Demand • TV live from all over the world • Video-Mail • Online Learning • Entertainment for Car Drivers in Traffic Jams Low Speed (Mobile Radio today) • E-mail • Messages (SMS) • Stock Quotations and News online • Phone Calls
What are the findings regarding EMF effects on living organisms? • Is there any proof of EMF effects on living organisms? Does research show how effects occur and how to access their health relevance? Is the overall impression given by findings explicit or rather contradictory? What public is simply adressing? (1) What research is there into EMF health effects? • Which evidence is given by different reseach approaches? • What is the extent of research: Compared to other research areas, are there more or rather less studies?
What public is simply adressing? (2) How reliable is current knowledge? • Is present knowledge sufficient or are there still too many unanswered questions? • Where are gaps of knowledge and what should be the focus of research? • Does current research provide no/little/sufficient/complete safety regarding health protection?
Are present standards sufficient? • How are standards set? How are different sensitivity levels of people taken into consideration? • Are present standards sufficient? • How are standards adapted to the latest development in research? What public is simply adressing? (3) Are there health damaging effects? • Are EMF effects supposed to have no health damaging consequences at all? • Or are effects shown without definitely knowing about health relevance? • Or are health hazards supposed to be proven?
Aim of all Research Activities should be to gather knowledge about influence and effects of EMF on human beings and environment to explore potential mechanisms. Research Initiatives • Who is working on the EMF issue? • National research programmes and institutions • International EMF programmes
WHO: EMF Project ICNIRP EU: Fifth Framework COST 281 FGF Examples for Research Initiatives
2 Organisation Project Period Budget USA Air Force Office of Scientific Research USAF RF Research Program: Biomolecular and subcellular RF bioeffects 2002 5 Mio US $ FRANCE National Research and Safety Institue Ministry of Health National Academy of Sciences National telecommunications companies Human and Animal dosimetric and cancer studies per year 1 Mio € JAPAN University of Tokyo and others Ministry of Post and Telecommunications Epidemiological studies 2000-2001 5,2 Mio US $ Funds spent for research (2)
Organisation Project Period Budget GERMANY Federal Office for Radiation Protection Federal Ministry of research Federal Ministry of economic affairs FGF Mobile phone health issues: Dosimetry, in vivo and in vitro biological investigations, epidemiology Drittmittelforschung, Kolloguien, Seminare 2002-2005 1992-2002 8,5 Mio € 2 Mio € 5 Mio € 10 Mio € UK Government and industry Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research 2002-2005 10 Mio US $ NORWAY Norwegian Navy Norwegian Cancer Registry Health risks from military antennas and radars 2002-2005 2,2 Mio € AUSTRALIA National Health and Medical Research Council Research on mobile phone safety per year 4 Mio US $ Funds spent for research (3) 3 Source: „Bioelectromagnetics Newsletter“ and „Microwave News“
European Commission Fifth Framework Programme for Research (1998-2002) Theme 1 Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources KEY ACTION 4 Environment and Health
KEY ACTION 4: ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH • Objectives and Deliverables are: • Reduction of health effects (including allergies) as related to environmental factors • Assessment and reduction of environmental health hazards • Support to health and environmental policy-making and public information
COST 281 – Participation in workshop EUROPEAN COMMISSION • November 30th, 2001: • „Electromagnetic Fields and Health - Which Regulatory Framework for the European Community?“
Cooperation in Science and Technology In 2001, a new COST programme was proposed to the European Union. This proposal, COST 281, concerning the „Biomedical effects of electromagnetic fields“ was adopted in March 2001 and should help foster research efforts in Europe. It is the continuation of the Cost 244 and COST 244bis actions. More emphasis has been put in its third study periode on mobile communications since COST 244 was placed under the umbrella of the Technical Committee for Telecommunications of the European Commission.
Memorandum of Understanding – COST281 action • The main objective is to obtain a better understanding of possible health impacts of emerging technologies, that may result in exposure to electromagnetic fields • The MoU will remain in force for a period of 5 years
Total Body Behaviour, Healing, Cancer? Organ R Heating A (grad T?) S Functional alteration y r Polarization, t Cell e - Heating m o r i s c (grad T?) Excitation, Proliferation, Activaton... i o M d h Membrane t Polarization, g n Phase Transitions Receptor-Activation,Transport... e r t S Atomar and d Molecule l Molecular e i Reactions F Thermal Interaction (non specific) Biological Amplification Non-Thermal Interaction (specific) Thermal and nonthermal Interactions of High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
Population Epidemiological Studies Individuals Animal (and Human) Experiments Cells and tissue Cell-biological Investigations Biochemical and Molecularbiological Investigations Molecules Biological Effects of Radio Waves Investigations on different levels:
Scientific programme • Monitor development of emerging technologies where major changes in public or occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields are likely • Investigate the possibility of health issues related to such exposures, and, where appropriate, define specific research efforts that may be needed • Evaluate the scientific basis for new exposure situation and/or health issues. Co-operation with other international bodies having similar aims will be important
Risk Assessment Basic Research For each emerging technology using well-established research methods Increasing efforts towards basic research in order to gain compre-hensive knowledge of possible biological interaction mechanism Advantages deals with the specific relevant issue comprehensive understanding of biological coherence Disadvantages for each new technology and applications new testing takes time and efforts Scientific Research at the Crossroads
Dissemination of the results • Workshops and seminars, where the target audience is expected to be primarily researchers • Newsletters and proceedings from these workshops, where the target audience is composed of researchers as well as representatives of national or local health authorities, industry representatives, consumer organisations etc. • A web-page, with primarily similar target audiences as above, but where the possibility of additional audiences should be encouraged • Summary reports and publications to policy makers, which should be made available also to the general public. In these summary reports , main scientific publications that has arisen from the Action will be listed and briefly described
„Experts“ who talk rubbish • Who is a so-called „expert“? • What is expertise? • Why is an interdisciplinary approach necessary? • Which role does media play? • What can public expect for the future?
Some Guidance for Seriousness in Research Reporting • Research is preliminary financed by the public(taxes, donation, gifts, voluntary contributions) • Research takes time • Research results must be seen very critically • Research results must be reproduceable • Pilot studies should be estimated as such • Research results must fit in a general overall understanding
Research requirements • Science cannot prove: there is no risk • Research should be of highest quality and directly relevant to human health • All studies should be done in „double blind“ manner • Single studies with positive effects should be bear replications • The dosimetry and exposure system should be clearly defined and it is a „must“ that the design and testing of the exposure systems is well documented • Experimental results and environmental factors should be monitored and controlled • All testing should be done against a well pre-defined hypothesis
Prerequisites for scientific work • Development of an evaluated database system for review and assessment of literature • Experimental set-up for studying electromagnetic alternating fields • Development of a guideline for experiments investigating the effects of high frequency EMF on biological systems • Quality assurements (oriented at GLP)
Prerequisites for scientific work Structuring of research projects: It is of importance to determine, prior to experiments, the intentions of the studies and the working hypothesis on which they are based. Biosystems in RF electromagnetic fields are a very complex research subject with a high degree of variability of the different experimental parameters.
Conclusions • Thermal effects are well established and form the biological basis for restricting exposure to radiofrequency fields • The research agenda is not concluded • Further activities in research are needed • Research activities should be more coordinated • Judgement of scientific knowledge should be done more on international basis • The public should be adressed more seriously
For further informations please contact directly: COST 281 Secretariat c/o Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk Rathausgasse 11a D-53111 Bonn, Germany Phone: +49 (0)228 / 72622-0 Fax: +49 (0)228 / 72622-11 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.cost281.org Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk