Indian Ocean Network 650-1750 http://www.indianoceanhistory.org/. Trade that connects the World. INDIAN OCEAN MONSOONS. JANUARY MONSOON (DRY) WINDS. JULY MONSOON (WET) WINDS. INDIAN OCEAN TRADE. 1. Merchants from Muslim, Indian, Chinese worlds 2. Two types of commodities: luxury, staple
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JANUARY MONSOON (DRY) WINDS
JULY MONSOON (WET) WINDS
1. Merchants from Muslim, Indian, Chinese worlds
2. Two types of commodities: luxury, staple
3. Government protected trade through entrepôts
4. Commonly observed rules, stability
5. Merchants frequently spread faith, culture
Ming Dynasty overthrew Yuan (Mongols); sought sought to re-establish past Chinese prominence and power in trade, technology. Ming revived old Chinese knowledge,
rebuild Chinese arts, skills, and
traditions in silk and porcelain,
Best known example was to
write complete encyclopedia
of all knowledge(11,000 volumes).
China had been sailing the Indian Ocean and China sea since 1st century BCE
Chinese had armed junks with multiple masts and sails since the 2nd century CE
Chinese junks had watertight compartments in the ship’s hull by the 2nd century CE
China had axial rudder since 1st century CE
China invented the magnetic compass in the 12th century CE
Chinese were more advanced with astronomy and celestial navigation
Yong le emperor usurped throne from second
emperor, who “fled abroad.” Emperor sent chief
eunuch and fleet to find him and to reestablish
ancient tribute system.
Tribute system was
proof of Chinese
Muslim palace eunuch of the
Yong-le emperor. His position
and knowledge of foreigners
and “Western” lands made him
ideal to lead Emperor’s fleets.
In Nanking, oversaw building of
the fleet, recruitment of sailors,
soldiers, and guides. Much
resentment to his expeditions
even amongst official circles.
Seven voyages called treasure fleets.
Ships visited Vietnam, Thailand,
Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh,
India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Iran, Arabian
peninsula including Yemen and Red Sea ports,
Somalia, and Kenya.
Typical fleet had around
100 ships, largest weighing
3,000 tons, carrying up to
90,000 troops, sailors.
In contrast, Columbus’ fleet only had three ships, the largest only 115 ft. long and carried 40 men.
Chinese methods could be called the
“carrot and the stick” - Chinese sought
trade and tribute. They needed very
little but others wanted Chinese
goods. When states refused to
submit, trade, Zheng He used
superior troops,weapons as
diplomacy, but sparingly.
After 1433, the Chinese government launched no further expeditions.
In 1436, the emperor forbade building ships for overseas voyages.
While Spain and Portugal explored and claimed new lands, China withdrew from sea voyage.
1. The Chinese government had an inadequate system of collecting taxes. Spending exceeded revenue.
2. Chinese believed that their civilization was superior to all others, so foreign goods were inferior, and there was little to learn from foreigners.
3. Neo-Confucian scholars held many important government posts. Their philosophy suppressed the desire for worldly things. So trade was held in contempt.
4. In the mid-1400s, Mongols began frequently attacking China’s northern border.
There is some question as to whether Zheng
He’s fleet might have made it to the Americas
around 1421/3. The descriptions within the
journals of the
seem to match a
journey of West
to East past Japan
along the Aleutians
and down the West
Coast to Mexico.
China benefited little. Zheng-He never found
the missing prince. He did reestablish the old
tribute system throughout much of the South
China Sea and Bay of Bengal. Little except spices
was found to trade although most states did want
Chinese porcelain and silks.
Portugal came to control the Indian Ocean spice
trade, which made the kingdom very wealthy.
The biggest gain was the spread of Christianity
by missionaries throughout the region.
1405: Zheng He’s first of seven voyages leaves Nanking
1406: Ptolemy’s Geography translated in West; Chinese reach India
1411: Zheng He conquers Sri Lanka
1415: Zheng He conquers Sumatran Kingdom, reach Hormuz
1416: Henry the Navigator defeats Muslims in Morocco
1417: Zheng He intervenes in Indian wars
1418: Chinese armada attacks Mogadishu
1420: Portuguese reach Madiera, explore African coast
1427: Portuguese reach Azores
1433: Zheng He dies, disgraced
1434: Portuguese fleet enters Bight of Benin, Gulf of Guinea
1436: Ming Emperor ends overseas naval explorations
1488: Portuguese (Diaz) reach southern tip of Africa
1498: Portuguese reach west coast of India by way of East Africa
The Chinese “unicorn” is a symbol
of good fortune, justice. Its coming
was symbolic of good times and peace.
Neo-Confucian doctrine taught that
China was at the center of the world and had
reached the heights of power,
influence. They despised
merchants, disliked eunuchs,
favored internal development.
Arabs dominated Mediterranean and Indian Ocean since 9CE
When a sailor loses sight of land, he must have a method of determining his direction. Determining latitude could be done by using the astrolabe (a simple wooden or brass stick with degrees marked around its edge), or by using the quadrant, (a quarter circle measuring 0 to 90 degrees marked around its curved edge).
Because he was only a passenger aboard ships he was never an explorer in the true sense, but this did not make his achievements any less important
West Africa was Portugal’s
training ground. The local
states were more powerful
than the Portuguese and
wanted to trade. Portuguese
learned to raid and trade,
while bettering sailing
knowledge and pushing
Portugal reconquered land from
Muslims, but hemmed in by Castile;
turned to seas to make future. State
backed overseas exploration,
shipbuilding, and schools to
train sailors. State rewarded
success through titles,
property. Prince Henry
lead Portuguese efforts.
Prince Henry’s schools trained
sailors from all over Europe;
promotion based on experience.
Sailors taught navigation using
Arab astrolabe, compass; ships
designed specifically for Atlantic.
Fleet pushed into Atlantic, discovered
Azores, Canaries; followed coasts of
Africa. Portuguese conquered Ceuta
in Morocco to begin expansion.
Three phases: down
African coast to Cape
of Good Hope, Cape to
India along East African
coast, and India to
China through Malacca
Straits. Fleets and ships
often small but heavily
Portuguese ships had to be
able to withstand hazards,
weather of Atlantic, some of
the worst on the globe. Sails
had to be able to turn as
wind direction changed. Bow was high to cut the
waves. Stern, bow were
fighting castles as ships
were sailing forts, armed
with heavy, light guns.
At first, threats backed
by terror tactics and
the Portuguese were
little less than pirates.
Later, seize control of
choke points (straits),
build forts, monopolize
spice trade, send out
missionaries, all controlled
from central capital, Goa.
Portugal found a thriving
trade dominated by Muslim
merchants and their states.
Portugal sacked most of the
Swahili city-states in East Africa
and built forts to control key points.
In India, Portugal had nothing to
trade with the Hindus and tried the
tactics. Later, Portugal established
markets, forts, missions, and wed
local women to control trade.
The Crusades brought knowledge and goods from Asia and the Islamic world.
The Mongol Empire had fostered trade between east and west; but it’s collapse
Asian spices improved European food. But spice had to be bought from Arab
wealthy at the
Lack of trade items; other than gold and silver, Europe had nothing that the east wanted. This led to a drain of wealth in Europe.
2. Geography; Europe was isolated from
were forced to
Rely on Arab
acted as the
middle men in
3. Lack of technology; Europe did not have the technology to conquer of bypass the Arab world.
Better ships: Europeans developed deep-draft ships capable of carrying
2. Magnetic compass: Europe adopted the compass from the Arabs who themselves got it from the Chinese.
4. Gunpowder: Europe adopted the knowledge of gunpowder from the Chinese.
5. Metalwork:European advancements in metalworking allowed blacksmiths to create the first guns and cannons.
From 1419 until his death in , Prince Henry sent expeditions down the west coast of Africa to outflank the Muslim hold on Asian trade routes.
It wasn't until 27 years after Henry's death that Bartolomeu Dias ship rounded the Cape of Good Hope in .
Vasco da Gama
Cape of Good
Hope in 1497
sailing along the eastern coast of
African. He located a route to India, but
had to contend with Arab strongholds.
In 1502, he
armed ships and defeat the Arab fleet.
By 1511, the Portuguese controlled the
Spice routes. In 1513, Portuguese trade
extended to China and Japan.
Portuguese success inspires Columbus to sail west to reach the Indies
Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who wanted to increase Spanish power.
They had recently defeated the Muslims (Moors) in Spain, and need wealth to maintain control.
They were also eager to Christianize the East.
Columbus reaches the Caribbean which he believes to be the East Indies
Since there were two catholic countries vying for territory in the new world.
The Pope draws a line down the world Spain has rights to the land west of the line; Portugal has rights to the land east of the line.
Known as the Treaty of Tordesillas, it divides the world between Spain and Portugal.
In 1580, the last Portuguese
king died and his nearest
male heir was Philip II,
King of Spain who inherited
the crown of Portugal.
Spanish interests came
first. During Spanish rule,
Dutch, French, and English
encroached on Portuguese
markets, empire, stealing
both for their states.
Portugal was first European nation to establish
a colonial empire and the last to lose it. In 1960,
India annexed Goa; in 1975, Mozambique
gained independence; Indonesia took East Timor,
and in1999, Macao was returned to China.