Indian Ocean Network 650-1750 http://www.indianoceanhistory.org/ Trade that connects the World
INDIAN OCEAN MONSOONS JANUARY MONSOON (DRY) WINDS JULY MONSOON (WET) WINDS
INDIAN OCEAN TRADE 1. Merchants from Muslim, Indian, Chinese worlds 2. Two types of commodities: luxury, staple 3. Government protected trade through entrepôts 4. Commonly observed rules, stability 5. Merchants frequently spread faith, culture
INDIAN OCEAN TRADE NETWORK SILVER LACQUER SILK PORCELAIN SUGAR LUXERIES TEA CLOTH YARN SILKS INDIGO PEPPER GEMS ANIMALS DRUGS COFFEE SLAVES IVORY HORSES SILKS GOLD STEEL SPICES TIMBER RICE MEDICINES
MING DYNASTY Ming Dynasty overthrew Yuan (Mongols); sought sought to re-establish past Chinese prominence and power in trade, technology. Ming revived old Chinese knowledge, rebuild Chinese arts, skills, and traditions in silk and porcelain, strengthen Neo-Confucianism Best known example was to write complete encyclopedia of all knowledge(11,000 volumes).
China China had been sailing the Indian Ocean and China sea since 1st century BCE Chinese had armed junks with multiple masts and sails since the 2nd century CE
China Chinese junks had watertight compartments in the ship’s hull by the 2nd century CE China had axial rudder since 1st century CE
China China invented the magnetic compass in the 12th century CE Chinese were more advanced with astronomy and celestial navigation
CHINESE MOTIVATIONS Yong le emperor usurped throne from second emperor, who “fled abroad.” Emperor sent chief eunuch and fleet to find him and to reestablish ancient tribute system. Tribute system was proof of Chinese superiority.
ZHENG - HE Muslim palace eunuch of the Yong-le emperor. His position and knowledge of foreigners and “Western” lands made him ideal to lead Emperor’s fleets. In Nanking, oversaw building of the fleet, recruitment of sailors, soldiers, and guides. Much resentment to his expeditions even amongst official circles.
MING NAVAL VOYAGES Seven voyages called treasure fleets. Ships visited Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Iran, Arabian peninsula including Yemen and Red Sea ports, Somalia, and Kenya. Typical fleet had around 100 ships, largest weighing 3,000 tons, carrying up to 90,000 troops, sailors.
Voyages of Zheng He (1405-33 CE) In contrast, Columbus’ fleet only had three ships, the largest only 115 ft. long and carried 40 men.
STAR RAFTS, DRAGON FLEETS • Chinese fleet had hundreds of ships • 130 meter long, 9-masted, 3,000+ tons • Crews of thousands, tons of cargoes • Watertight bulkheads, retractable rudders
CHINESE TACTICS Chinese methods could be called the “carrot and the stick” - Chinese sought trade and tribute. They needed very little but others wanted Chinese goods. When states refused to submit, trade, Zheng He used superior troops,weapons as diplomacy, but sparingly.
Voyages of Zheng He (1405-33 CE) After 1433, the Chinese government launched no further expeditions. In 1436, the emperor forbade building ships for overseas voyages. While Spain and Portugal explored and claimed new lands, China withdrew from sea voyage.
Reasons China did not explore the world 1. The Chinese government had an inadequate system of collecting taxes. Spending exceeded revenue. 2. Chinese believed that their civilization was superior to all others, so foreign goods were inferior, and there was little to learn from foreigners.
Reasons China did not explore the world 3. Neo-Confucian scholars held many important government posts. Their philosophy suppressed the desire for worldly things. So trade was held in contempt. 4. In the mid-1400s, Mongols began frequently attacking China’s northern border.
TO THE AMERICAS? There is some question as to whether Zheng He’s fleet might have made it to the Americas around 1421/3. The descriptions within the journals of the official voyage seem to match a journey of West to East past Japan along the Aleutians and down the West Coast to Mexico.
BENEFITS? China benefited little. Zheng-He never found the missing prince. He did reestablish the old tribute system throughout much of the South China Sea and Bay of Bengal. Little except spices was found to trade although most states did want Chinese porcelain and silks. Portugal came to control the Indian Ocean spice trade, which made the kingdom very wealthy. The biggest gain was the spread of Christianity by missionaries throughout the region.
TIMELINES 1405: Zheng He’s first of seven voyages leaves Nanking 1406: Ptolemy’s Geography translated in West; Chinese reach India 1411: Zheng He conquers Sri Lanka 1415: Zheng He conquers Sumatran Kingdom, reach Hormuz 1416: Henry the Navigator defeats Muslims in Morocco 1417: Zheng He intervenes in Indian wars 1418: Chinese armada attacks Mogadishu 1420: Portuguese reach Madiera, explore African coast 1427: Portuguese reach Azores 1433: Zheng He dies, disgraced 1434: Portuguese fleet enters Bight of Benin, Gulf of Guinea 1436: Ming Emperor ends overseas naval explorations 1488: Portuguese (Diaz) reach southern tip of Africa 1498: Portuguese reach west coast of India by way of East Africa
CH’I-LIN AND CONFUCIANS The Chinese “unicorn” is a symbol of good fortune, justice. Its coming was symbolic of good times and peace. Neo-Confucian doctrine taught that China was at the center of the world and had reached the heights of power, influence. They despised merchants, disliked eunuchs, favored internal development.
THE MING END • Northern nomads • The Great Wall • A New Capital • New Emperor • Japanese pirates • Grand Canal • Cost of fleets • Anti-eunuch • Confucianism
Arabs Arabs dominated Mediterranean and Indian Ocean since 9CE Arab dhow
Dar al Islam • Arab ships weren’t as big as the Chinese, but they dominated spice islands of Malaysia, gold-rich Africa, and cotton/silk-producing Asia!
Indian Ocean Trade • Arab merchants were ordained by the Prophet. “I commend the merchants to you, for they are the courtiers of the horizons and God’s trusted servants on earth.” ~Mohammed
Astrolabe & Quadrant When a sailor loses sight of land, he must have a method of determining his direction. Determining latitude could be done by using the astrolabe (a simple wooden or brass stick with degrees marked around its edge), or by using the quadrant, (a quarter circle measuring 0 to 90 degrees marked around its curved edge).
Ibn Battuta (14th century) • Arabs traveled for discovery. Ibn Battuta, an Islamic historian traveled over 75,000 miles, making him one of most traveled men of his age. He visited India, China, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, and the African interior as far south as the Niger River.
Ibn Battuta (14th century) Because he was only a passenger aboard ships he was never an explorer in the true sense, but this did not make his achievements any less important
PORTUGUESE MOTIVATION:GOD, GLORY, GOLD • Religious Zeal • Prestor John • Crusades • Trade Monopoly • Ottomans • Mansa Musa • Renaissance • Technology
TO AFRICA AND THE CAPE West Africa was Portugal’s training ground. The local states were more powerful than the Portuguese and wanted to trade. Portuguese learned to raid and trade, while bettering sailing knowledge and pushing further south.
PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR Portugal reconquered land from Muslims, but hemmed in by Castile; turned to seas to make future. State backed overseas exploration, shipbuilding, and schools to train sailors. State rewarded success through titles, property. Prince Henry lead Portuguese efforts.
PORTUGUESE ADMIRALS Prince Henry’s schools trained sailors from all over Europe; promotion based on experience. Sailors taught navigation using Arab astrolabe, compass; ships designed specifically for Atlantic. Fleet pushed into Atlantic, discovered Azores, Canaries; followed coasts of Africa. Portuguese conquered Ceuta in Morocco to begin expansion.
PORTUGUESE NAVAL VOYAGES Three phases: down African coast to Cape of Good Hope, Cape to India along East African coast, and India to China through Malacca Straits. Fleets and ships often small but heavily armed.
CARAVEL & NAO Portuguese ships had to be able to withstand hazards, weather of Atlantic, some of the worst on the globe. Sails had to be able to turn as wind direction changed. Bow was high to cut the waves. Stern, bow were fighting castles as ships were sailing forts, armed with heavy, light guns.
PORTUGUESE TACTICS At first, threats backed by terror tactics and military technology: the Portuguese were little less than pirates. Later, seize control of choke points (straits), build forts, monopolize spice trade, send out missionaries, all controlled from central capital, Goa.
THE INDIAN OCEAN Portugal found a thriving trade dominated by Muslim merchants and their states. Portugal sacked most of the Swahili city-states in East Africa and built forts to control key points. In India, Portugal had nothing to trade with the Hindus and tried the tactics. Later, Portugal established markets, forts, missions, and wed local women to control trade.
European Incentive The Crusades brought knowledge and goods from Asia and the Islamic world.
European Incentive The Mongol Empire had fostered trade between east and west; but it’s collapse disrupted this trade.
European Incentive Asian spices improved European food. But spice had to be bought from Arab merchants became wealthy at the expense of Europe.
Trade disadvantages of Europe Lack of trade items; other than gold and silver, Europe had nothing that the east wanted. This led to a drain of wealth in Europe.
Trade disadvantage of Europe 2. Geography; Europe was isolated from Asia. They were forced to Rely on Arab merchants that acted as the middle men in this trade network.
Trade disadvantage of Europe 3. Lack of technology; Europe did not have the technology to conquer of bypass the Arab world.
European technological changes of the 15th century Better ships: Europeans developed deep-draft ships capable of carrying heavy loads on the Atlantic Ocean.
European technological changes of the 15th century 2. Magnetic compass: Europe adopted the compass from the Arabs who themselves got it from the Chinese.
European technological changes of the 15th century Mapmaking: Mapmaking enhanced by humanism from the Renaissance became more accurate.
European technological changes of the 15th century 4. Gunpowder: Europe adopted the knowledge of gunpowder from the Chinese.
European technological changes of the 15th century 5. Metalwork:European advancements in metalworking allowed blacksmiths to create the first guns and cannons.
Portuguese Exploration From 1419 until his death in , Prince Henry sent expeditions down the west coast of Africa to outflank the Muslim hold on Asian trade routes.