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Indian Ocean Network 650-1750 http://www.indianoceanhistory.org/. Trade that connects the World. INDIAN OCEAN MONSOONS. JANUARY MONSOON (DRY) WINDS. JULY MONSOON (WET) WINDS. INDIAN OCEAN TRADE. 1. Merchants from Muslim, Indian, Chinese worlds 2. Two types of commodities: luxury, staple

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indian ocean network 650 1750 http www indianoceanhistory org
Indian Ocean Network

650-1750

http://www.indianoceanhistory.org/

Trade that connects the World
indian ocean monsoons
INDIAN OCEAN MONSOONS

JANUARY MONSOON (DRY) WINDS

JULY MONSOON (WET) WINDS

indian ocean trade
INDIAN OCEAN TRADE

1. Merchants from Muslim, Indian, Chinese worlds

2. Two types of commodities: luxury, staple

3. Government protected trade through entrepôts

4. Commonly observed rules, stability

5. Merchants frequently spread faith, culture

indian ocean trade network
INDIAN OCEAN TRADE NETWORK

SILVER

LACQUER

SILK

PORCELAIN

SUGAR

LUXERIES

TEA

CLOTH

YARN

SILKS

INDIGO

PEPPER

GEMS

ANIMALS

DRUGS

COFFEE

SLAVES

IVORY

HORSES

SILKS

GOLD

STEEL

SPICES

TIMBER

RICE

MEDICINES

ming dynasty
MING DYNASTY

Ming Dynasty overthrew Yuan (Mongols); sought sought to re-establish past Chinese prominence and power in trade, technology. Ming revived old Chinese knowledge,

rebuild Chinese arts, skills, and

traditions in silk and porcelain,

strengthen Neo-Confucianism

Best known example was to

write complete encyclopedia

of all knowledge(11,000 volumes).

china
China

China had been sailing the Indian Ocean and China sea since 1st century BCE

Chinese had armed junks with multiple masts and sails since the 2nd century CE

china1
China

Chinese junks had watertight compartments in the ship’s hull by the 2nd century CE

China had axial rudder since 1st century CE

china2
China

China invented the magnetic compass in the 12th century CE

Chinese were more advanced with astronomy and celestial navigation

chinese motivations
CHINESE MOTIVATIONS

Yong le emperor usurped throne from second

emperor, who “fled abroad.” Emperor sent chief

eunuch and fleet to find him and to reestablish

ancient tribute system.

Tribute system was

proof of Chinese

superiority.

zheng he
ZHENG - HE

Muslim palace eunuch of the

Yong-le emperor. His position

and knowledge of foreigners

and “Western” lands made him

ideal to lead Emperor’s fleets.

In Nanking, oversaw building of

the fleet, recruitment of sailors,

soldiers, and guides. Much

resentment to his expeditions

even amongst official circles.

ming naval voyages
MING NAVAL VOYAGES

Seven voyages called treasure fleets.

Ships visited Vietnam, Thailand,

Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh,

India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Iran, Arabian

peninsula including Yemen and Red Sea ports,

Somalia, and Kenya.

Typical fleet had around

100 ships, largest weighing

3,000 tons, carrying up to

90,000 troops, sailors.

voyages of zheng he 1405 33 ce
Voyages of Zheng He (1405-33 CE)

In contrast, Columbus’ fleet only had three ships, the largest only 115 ft. long and carried 40 men.

star rafts dragon fleets
STAR RAFTS, DRAGON FLEETS
  • Chinese fleet had hundreds of ships
  • 130 meter long, 9-masted, 3,000+ tons
  • Crews of thousands, tons of cargoes
  • Watertight bulkheads, retractable rudders
chinese tactics
CHINESE TACTICS

Chinese methods could be called the

“carrot and the stick” - Chinese sought

trade and tribute. They needed very

little but others wanted Chinese

goods. When states refused to

submit, trade, Zheng He used

superior troops,weapons as

diplomacy, but sparingly.

voyages of zheng he 1405 33 ce1
Voyages of Zheng He (1405-33 CE)

After 1433, the Chinese government launched no further expeditions.

In 1436, the emperor forbade building ships for overseas voyages.

While Spain and Portugal explored and claimed new lands, China withdrew from sea voyage.

reasons china did not explore the world
Reasons China did not explore the world

1. The Chinese government had an inadequate system of collecting taxes. Spending exceeded revenue.

2. Chinese believed that their civilization was superior to all others, so foreign goods were inferior, and there was little to learn from foreigners.

reasons china did not explore the world1
Reasons China did not explore the world

3. Neo-Confucian scholars held many important government posts. Their philosophy suppressed the desire for worldly things. So trade was held in contempt.

4. In the mid-1400s, Mongols began frequently attacking China’s northern border.

to the americas
TO THE AMERICAS?

There is some question as to whether Zheng

He’s fleet might have made it to the Americas

around 1421/3. The descriptions within the

journals of the

official voyage

seem to match a

journey of West

to East past Japan

along the Aleutians

and down the West

Coast to Mexico.

benefits
BENEFITS?

China benefited little. Zheng-He never found

the missing prince. He did reestablish the old

tribute system throughout much of the South

China Sea and Bay of Bengal. Little except spices

was found to trade although most states did want

Chinese porcelain and silks.

Portugal came to control the Indian Ocean spice

trade, which made the kingdom very wealthy.

The biggest gain was the spread of Christianity

by missionaries throughout the region.

timelines
TIMELINES

1405: Zheng He’s first of seven voyages leaves Nanking

1406: Ptolemy’s Geography translated in West; Chinese reach India

1411: Zheng He conquers Sri Lanka

1415: Zheng He conquers Sumatran Kingdom, reach Hormuz

1416: Henry the Navigator defeats Muslims in Morocco

1417: Zheng He intervenes in Indian wars

1418: Chinese armada attacks Mogadishu

1420: Portuguese reach Madiera, explore African coast

1427: Portuguese reach Azores

1433: Zheng He dies, disgraced

1434: Portuguese fleet enters Bight of Benin, Gulf of Guinea

1436: Ming Emperor ends overseas naval explorations

1488: Portuguese (Diaz) reach southern tip of Africa

1498: Portuguese reach west coast of India by way of East Africa

ch i lin and confucians
CH’I-LIN AND CONFUCIANS

The Chinese “unicorn” is a symbol

of good fortune, justice. Its coming

was symbolic of good times and peace.

Neo-Confucian doctrine taught that

China was at the center of the world and had

reached the heights of power,

influence. They despised

merchants, disliked eunuchs,

favored internal development.

the ming end
THE MING END
          • Northern nomads
          • The Great Wall
          • A New Capital
          • New Emperor
  • Japanese pirates
  • Grand Canal
  • Cost of fleets
  • Anti-eunuch
  • Confucianism
arabs
Arabs

Arabs dominated Mediterranean and Indian Ocean since 9CE

Arab dhow

dar al islam
Dar al Islam
  • Arab ships weren’t as big as the Chinese, but they dominated spice islands of Malaysia, gold-rich Africa, and cotton/silk-producing Asia!
indian ocean trade1
Indian Ocean Trade
  • Arab merchants were ordained by the Prophet. “I commend the merchants to you, for they are the courtiers of the horizons and God’s trusted servants on earth.” ~Mohammed
astrolabe quadrant
Astrolabe & Quadrant

When a sailor loses sight of land, he must have a method of determining his direction. Determining latitude could be done by using the astrolabe (a simple wooden or brass stick with degrees marked around its edge), or by using the quadrant, (a quarter circle measuring 0 to 90 degrees marked around its curved edge).

ibn battuta 14 th century
Ibn Battuta (14th century)‏
  • Arabs traveled for discovery. Ibn Battuta, an Islamic historian traveled over 75,000 miles, making him one of most traveled men of his age. He visited India, China, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, and the African interior as far south as the Niger River.
ibn battuta 14 th century1
Ibn Battuta (14th century)‏

Because he was only a passenger aboard ships he was never an explorer in the true sense, but this did not make his achievements any less important

portuguese motivation god glory gold
PORTUGUESE MOTIVATION:GOD, GLORY, GOLD
  • Religious Zeal
  • Prestor John
  • Crusades
  • Trade Monopoly
  • Ottomans
  • Mansa Musa
  • Renaissance
  • Technology
to africa and the cape
TO AFRICA AND THE CAPE

West Africa was Portugal’s

training ground. The local

states were more powerful

than the Portuguese and

wanted to trade. Portuguese

learned to raid and trade,

while bettering sailing

knowledge and pushing

further south.

prince henry the navigator
PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR

Portugal reconquered land from

Muslims, but hemmed in by Castile;

turned to seas to make future. State

backed overseas exploration,

shipbuilding, and schools to

train sailors. State rewarded

success through titles,

property. Prince Henry

lead Portuguese efforts.

portuguese admirals
PORTUGUESE ADMIRALS

Prince Henry’s schools trained

sailors from all over Europe;

promotion based on experience.

Sailors taught navigation using

Arab astrolabe, compass; ships

designed specifically for Atlantic.

Fleet pushed into Atlantic, discovered

Azores, Canaries; followed coasts of

Africa. Portuguese conquered Ceuta

in Morocco to begin expansion.

portuguese naval voyages
PORTUGUESE NAVAL VOYAGES

Three phases: down

African coast to Cape

of Good Hope, Cape to

India along East African

coast, and India to

China through Malacca

Straits. Fleets and ships

often small but heavily

armed.

caravel nao
CARAVEL & NAO

Portuguese ships had to be

able to withstand hazards,

weather of Atlantic, some of

the worst on the globe. Sails

had to be able to turn as

wind direction changed. Bow was high to cut the

waves. Stern, bow were

fighting castles as ships

were sailing forts, armed

with heavy, light guns.

portuguese tactics
PORTUGUESE TACTICS

At first, threats backed

by terror tactics and

military technology:

the Portuguese were

little less than pirates.

Later, seize control of

choke points (straits),

build forts, monopolize

spice trade, send out

missionaries, all controlled

from central capital, Goa.

the indian ocean
THE INDIAN OCEAN

Portugal found a thriving

trade dominated by Muslim

merchants and their states.

Portugal sacked most of the

Swahili city-states in East Africa

and built forts to control key points.

In India, Portugal had nothing to

trade with the Hindus and tried the

tactics. Later, Portugal established

markets, forts, missions, and wed

local women to control trade.

european incentive
European Incentive

The Crusades brought knowledge and goods from Asia and the Islamic world.

european incentive1
European Incentive

The Mongol Empire had fostered trade between east and west; but it’s collapse

disrupted

this trade.

european incentive2
European Incentive

Asian spices improved European food. But spice had to be bought from Arab

merchants

became

wealthy at the

expense of

Europe.

trade disadvantages of europe
Trade disadvantages of Europe

Lack of trade items; other than gold and silver, Europe had nothing that the east wanted. This led to a drain of wealth in Europe.

trade disadvantage of europe
Trade disadvantage of Europe

2. Geography; Europe was isolated from

Asia. They

were forced to

Rely on Arab

merchants that

acted as the

middle men in

this trade

network.

trade disadvantage of europe1
Trade disadvantage of Europe

3. Lack of technology; Europe did not have the technology to conquer of bypass the Arab world.

european technological changes of the 15 th century
European technological changes of the 15th century

Better ships: Europeans developed deep-draft ships capable of carrying

heavy loads

on the

Atlantic

Ocean.

european technological changes of the 15 th century1
European technological changes of the 15th century

2. Magnetic compass: Europe adopted the compass from the Arabs who themselves got it from the Chinese.

european technological changes of the 15 th century2
European technological changes of the 15th century

Mapmaking: Mapmaking

enhanced by

humanism from

the Renaissance

became more

accurate.

european technological changes of the 15 th century3
European technological changes of the 15th century

4. Gunpowder: Europe adopted the knowledge of gunpowder from the Chinese.

european technological changes of the 15 th century4
European technological changes of the 15th century

5. Metalwork:European advancements in metalworking allowed blacksmiths to create the first guns and cannons.

portuguese exploration
Portuguese Exploration

From 1419 until his death in [1460], Prince Henry sent expeditions down the west coast of Africa to outflank the Muslim hold on Asian trade routes.

portuguese exploration1
Portuguese Exploration

It wasn't until 27 years after Henry's death that Bartolomeu Dias ship rounded the Cape of Good Hope in [1487].

portuguese exploration2
Portuguese Exploration

Vasco da Gama

rounded the

Cape of Good

Hope in 1497

and continue

sailing along the eastern coast of

African. He located a route to India, but

had to contend with Arab strongholds.

portuguese exploration3
Portuguese Exploration

In 1502, he

returned with

14 heavily

armed ships and defeat the Arab fleet.

By 1511, the Portuguese controlled the

Spice routes. In 1513, Portuguese trade

extended to China and Japan.

spanish exploration
Spanish Exploration

Portuguese success inspires Columbus to sail west to reach the Indies

Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who wanted to increase Spanish power.

They had recently defeated the Muslims (Moors) in Spain, and need wealth to maintain control.

They were also eager to Christianize the East.

spanish exploration1
Spanish Exploration

Columbus reaches the Caribbean which he believes to be the East Indies

line of demarcation
Line of Demarcation

Since there were two catholic countries vying for territory in the new world.

The Pope draws a line down the world  Spain has rights to the land west of the line; Portugal has rights to the land east of the line.

Known as the Treaty of Tordesillas, it divides the world between Spain and Portugal.

the portuguese end
THE PORTUGUESE END

In 1580, the last Portuguese

king died and his nearest

male heir was Philip II,

King of Spain who inherited

the crown of Portugal.

Spanish interests came

first. During Spanish rule,

Dutch, French, and English

encroached on Portuguese

markets, empire, stealing

both for their states.

first to enter last to leave
FIRST TO ENTER, LAST TO LEAVE

Portugal was first European nation to establish

a colonial empire and the last to lose it. In 1960,

India annexed Goa; in 1975, Mozambique

gained independence; Indonesia took East Timor,

and in1999, Macao was returned to China.