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Design of 4-bit ALU. Ashwini Nanjappa Sravani Sanapala Vanita Ramaswamy Advisor: Dr.David Parent Fall 2004. Agenda. Abstract Introduction Why Simple Theory Project Details Block Diagram Schematics Layout Verification: DRC, Extract, LVS Simulation Results Cost Analysis Conclusion.

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Design of 4-bit ALU


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design of 4 bit alu

Design of 4-bit ALU

Ashwini Nanjappa

Sravani Sanapala

Vanita Ramaswamy

Advisor: Dr.David Parent

Fall 2004

agenda
Agenda
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
    • Why
    • Simple Theory
  • Project Details
    • Block Diagram
    • Schematics
    • Layout
    • Verification: DRC, Extract, LVS
    • Simulation Results
  • Cost Analysis
  • Conclusion
abstract
Abstract
  • Aim of the project is to design a 4-bit ALU to perform seven arithmetic operations and four logic operations.
  • The circuit is designed so as to meet the following specifications:
    • Frequency: 200MHz
    • Power : 23W/cm2
    • Area : 400x400µm2
  • The results are verified with AMI06 technology, Spectre spice simulation tools.
introduction
Introduction
  • ALU is a fundamental unit of several combinational circuits. Learning ALU design aids in designing complex circuits.
  • All the arithmetic operations are performed by the Carry look ahead adder using a B-input logic.The B-input logic is based on the equation Y=BiS0+Bi’S1
  • The logic operations are performed using basic gates.
  • Two select lines are used to perform the operations on two 4 bit inputs in both the units.
  • The third select line is used to select either one of the units.
introduction cont d
Introduction Cont’d.

Function Table for ALU

project details
Project Details
  • The B-input logic with CLA reduces the complexity of the circuit.The CLA consists of propagate/generate block, carry generator and sum block.
  • The critical path for the circuit is from the input B2 to the output out3 for the subtraction operation.
  • 4to1 Mux selects the logic operations based on the select lines in the logic unit.
  • Finally a 2to1 Mux selects between arithmetic and logic unit.
  • Mux based D-flipflops are used in the circuit with .7ns setup and hold time.
  • The sizing and layout of the gates are cell based.
slide7
Longest path has 17 logic levels including the input and output flipflops.

A load of 20fF is assumed as the load for long path calculation from DFF.

Long Path Calculation(Arithmetic Unit)

τPHL=5ns/(13+4)=0.29ns for each logic level

Project Details Cont’d

slide9

Logic Verified in NC-Verilog

B-Input Logic

Propagate/Generate

CarryGenerator

slide12

ALU Test Bench Schematic

The inputs (A,B,CIN) and select lines (M,S0,S1)are set for worst case.

slide14

Verification

DRC

Extracted

LVSReport

cost analysis
CostAnalysis
  • Time is money !
  • Time spent on each phase is:
    • Design and Implementation Phase:
        • Logic design and NC Verilog check– 1 Week.
        • Transitor level design and simulation – 2 Week.
        • Timing check, Stick Diagram and Layout- 1 week.
    • Verification and Testing Phase:
        • Post extraction, Power simulation & Time check - 1day
conclusion
Designed and tested a 4 bit ALU that performs seven arithmetic and four logic operations at :

200 Mhz clock

Power: 11.6W/cm2

Area: 333x412 μm2

The project meets all the given specifications

This design concept can be a building block for higher bit ALU ex. 16-bit, 32-bit…

Conclusion
acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
  • Thanks to Professor David Parent for his guidance throughout the project.
  • Thanks to Cadence Design Systems for the VLSI lab.
  • Thanks to TA for helping us in the lab.
  • Thanks to our classmates.