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Blood PowerPoint Presentation

Blood

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Blood

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  1. Blood Chapter 10

  2. Agenda • Characteristic of Blood • Components • Functions of Components • Blood Cell Formation • Clotting • Blood Typing

  3. Composition and Function • Only fluid tissue • Both solid and liquid components • Connective tissue – protects, supports and binds together other body tissues • Blood – formed elements suspended in plasma • Collagen and elastin absent, but proteins visible as fibrin during clotting

  4. Components of Blood Figure 10.1 % of total volume of blood sample that is rbc = hematocrit

  5. Physical Characteristics • Opaque, sticky, metallic taste • Color varies depending on arterial or venous blood, O2 level • Heavier and 5x thicker than H2O • Alkaline, pH 7.35-7.45 • Temp = 100.4°F • 8% body weight, healthy man 6 quarts http://singularityhub.com/2008/08/22/is-an-unlimited-supply-of-blood-and-no-more-need-for-blood-donors-around-the-corner/

  6. Plasma • ~90% H2O • Dissolved substances include – nutrients, salts (electrolytes), respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, wastes and products of metabolism • Helps distribute heat from cell metabolism http://www.lifeshare.cc/content.aspx?ID=13

  7. Plasma Proteins • Plasma proteins – most made by liver • Albumin – shuttle, buffer, stabilizes osmotic pressure • Not taken up by cells, unlike nutrients or other substances • Antibodies (Ab) – immunity • Clotting proteins • Remains fairly constant in healthy person • Drastic changes – stimulates liver to make more proteins • When too acidic or basic – kidneys and respiratory systems help restore to homeostatis

  8. Formed Elements - RBC • Erythrocytes far out number other cells • Carry O2 in blood • Anucleate • Very few organelles • Hemoglobin – Fe bearing protein, transports O2 • Shape – SA to vol. ratio, gas exchange • Lack mitochondria • What do Mitochondria do? Figure 10.3a

  9. Hemoglobin in blood • The more hemoglobin in RBC, the more O2 transported • Hemoglobin slightly higher in men • Men 13-18g/ml • Women 12-16g/ml • Single blood cell has ~250 mil. Hemoglobin molecules • How many O2 molecules is that? http://pennhealth.com/health_info/bloodless/000210.html

  10. Sickle Cell Anemia • Anemia – loss of O2 carrying ability • Cells become sickle shaped • unload O2 • O2 is low in blood • Exercise • Stress • Anxiety • Rupture, dam vessels • Single a.a. change in 2 of 4 chains • Evolutionary advantage in areas with malaria Figure 10.3

  11. Leukocytes – White Blood Cells • Only complete cell in blood • Body’s defense • Move in and out of blood into tissue – diapedesis • Positive chemotaxis – respond to chemicals secreted by damaged cells • Move by ameboid motion • Destroy invaders, remove dead dying cells • Remember the eye? http://www.irvingcrowley.com/cls/hemo.htm

  12. Leukocytosis vs Leukopenia • WBC mobilized, body increases production • Can double w/in 2 hours • Total WBC count over 11,000 cells/mm3 is leukocytosis • Indicates infection • Low WBC count is leukopenia • Caused by drugs like corticosteriods, anticancer drugs • Diseases such as cyclical neutropenia

  13. Leukemia and Infectious Mononucleosis • Excessive production of abnormal WBC • Leukemia – bone marrow cancerous, pumps out immature WBC that can’t do job, leaves person open to infectious disease • Other blood cell lines crowed out, leads to bleeding and anemia • Mononucleosis - caused by EBV.

  14. WBC - Granulocytes Table 10.2 (1 of 2

  15. WBC - Agranulocytes Never let monkeys eat bananas Table 10.2 (2 of 2)

  16. Platelets • Not typical cell • Fragments of multinucleate megakaryocyte • Platelets anucleate • Clotting process in plasma when blood vessels rupture or broken Figure 10.2

  17. Hematopoiesis • Occurs in red bone marrow = myeloid tissue • Where is this in adults? • # of type of cell produced depends on body’s need and stimuli • After maturation, released into blood stream • 100 billion new cells everyday!

  18. Formation of formed elements • All formed elements derived from hemocytoblast (type of stem cell) in red marrow • Development differs, but once committed can’t change path • Two decendents Figure 10.4

  19. Formation of RBC • Anulceate – can’t synthesize proteins, grow, or divide • Become rigid and fragment at 100-120 days • Eliminated by phagocytes in liver, spleen, and other tissues • Lost cells replaced in red marrow • Developing RBC divide many times, produce large amount of hemoglobin • Nucleus and organelles ejected, cells collapse = reticulocyte (still contains some RER) • Enter blood, w/in 2 days eject RER, become erythrocytes

  20. Controlling Rate of RBC Production • Erythropoietin • Small amount in blood at all times • Kidneys secrete when O2 levels in blood drop • Targets bone marrow • High O2 depresses erythropoietin release • NOT # of RBC in blood, but O2, how effective are the RBC Figure 10.5

  21. Formation of WBCs and Platelets • Also controlled by hormones • Thrombopoietin - platelets • Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF) or Interleukins - WBCs • Prompt red marrow to produce new WBC and platelets • Enhance ability of mature leukocytes to fight • Released in response to chemical signals • Inflammatory chemicals, bacterial toxins

  22. Hemostasis - Clotting • Break or tear of vessel walls • Fast, localized response • Components of plasma and some released by platelets and injured tissue • 3 steps • Vascular Spasms • Platelet Plug • Coagulation • 3-6 minutes, immediately triggering factors inactivated, endothelium repaired, clot broken down • Gauze and pressure? Figure 10.6

  23. Blood Diseases • Hemophilia – lack of clotting factors • Group of disorders • Bleeding into joints painful and debilitating • Require transfusions of plasma or injections of clotting factors • Thrombus – clot in unbroken vessel • What problems can this cause? • Free floating Thrombus = embolus • What problems when an embolus lodges somewhere?

  24. Human Blood Groups • Antigen (Ag) – substance body identifies as foreign, stimulates Ab production or other means of defense • Antibodies (Ab) – proteins that recognize Ag • Agglutination – Ab bind Ag, cause clumping and then eventual lysed • 4 Blood Types • O, AB, A, B

  25. Human Blood Groups • On plasma membrane of RBCs are Ag • We do not have Ab against the Ag on our own RBC Table 10.3

  26. Rh Factor • Rh antigen on cell • Most humans are Rh + • Rh antibodies are not automatically formed in Rh – individuals, requires sensitization • 1st transfusion of Rh + no reaction • 2nd time and after immune response, destroys RBCs • Pregnant Rh - women get RhoGAM shot • w/o mom’s Ab can cross placenta destroy babies RBC = hemolytic disease, fetal transfusions

  27. Blood Typing Figure 10.8

  28. The End