ELLs with Disabilities: What the Literature Has to Say Adapted presentation by Soyoung Park Stanford Graduate School of Education ELL SCASS Meeting June 24, 2014
Think of 2 or 3 important policy and/or practice related questions about ELLs with disabilities that you would like to have answers to (if they exist). Please jot these questions down
Agenda Part One: • Who are English language learners with disabilities? • Assessment and Identification Concerns • Small Group Discussion Part Two: • Issues of Representation • Instruction and Interventions • Small Group Discussion Part Three: • Discussion: Lingering Questions
English Language Learners with Special Needs Overview of the Literature (77 articles) Overview and Background (6 articles) Miscellaneous (7 articles) Assessment and Identification (22 articles) Instruction and Intervention (28 articles) Representation (18 articles)
Who are ELLs with Disabilities? • Students who are eligible for both special education services and English language development/bilingual programs • 2009-2010 School Year: • 518,088 students with disabilities classified as LEP (8.5%) • CA highest percentage of all ELLs identified as having disabilities (2%) • More than half of all states report providing SpEd services to less than 0.5% of ELLs (Office of Special Education Programs Data Accountability Center, 2013)
Who are ELLs with Disabilities? • In 2009-2010, states reported the following languages most commonly spoken by ELLs with disabilities: Arabic (29 states) Chinese (32 states) Hmong (7 states) Russian (7 states) Somali (10 states) Spanish (32 states) Vietnamese (31 states) (2009-2010 Consolidated State Performance Reports)
Who are ELLs with Disabilities? • Most common disability categories for ELLs: • Specific learning disabilities (SLD) • Speech/language impairments (SLI) • Intellectual disabilities (ID; formerly MR) • Emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD; formerly ED) • 2006 OCR study: 88% of students with disabilities in need of ELD/bilingual instruction received it • Many children only get one or the other when need both • Many children get both when only need one or the other
Assessment and Identification • Challenge: disabilities v. language proficiency issues • What level of proficiency should ELLs acquire before referred for SpEd evaluation? • Educators tend to jump to LD diagnosis • Lack of information on what educators need to understand about second language acquisition • Importance of considering instruction and interventions students already received (usu. in RtI model)
Assessment and Identification Common characteristics in language development of ELLs and students with language related disabilities (Case & Taylor, 2005; Chu & Flores, 2011)
Assessment and Identification • Problems with assessments • Evaluations for SpEd eligibility all in English • No adequate measures to determine when ELLs ready to be assessed in English • Evaluations tend to be linguistically complex • Referral process is subjective and biased • RtI interventions rarely culturally relevant • One study finding: Psychological evaluation reports for ELLs tend to ignore state and professional guidelines on how to conduct nondiscriminatory assessments (Figueroa & Newsome, 2006)
Assessment and Identification • Recommended assessment techniques Approaches to Assessment Multiple step process (RtI) Collaborative teams Assess in dominant language Trained interpreters Assess cultural responsiveness of school Alternative and Supplementary Assessments Analytic teaching Curriculum-based assessment Language sampling Narrative analysis Portfolio assessments
Discussion Questions • What stood out to you in the information presented about who ELLs with disabilities are? • What stood out to you about issues related to assessment and identification of ELLs with disabilities? • Is there anything else you would like to know more about regarding demographics of ELLs with disabilities or issues of assessment/identification? • What are common problems educators in your district face with regards to assessment/identification? What initiatives, if any, have been taken to address these problems?
Representation • Long history of overrepresentation of students with “low status” backgrounds in SpEd • Blacks, Latinos and Native Americans tend to be overrepresented compared with whites and all students • Asians tend to be underrepresented, with the exception of some Southeast Asian groups • English language learners tend to be disproportionately labeled LD and SLI
Representation At national level, ELLs not overrepresented in SpEd (Zehler et al, 2003)
Representation Other studies focusing on single states with high ELL populations:
Representation • Consequences of disproportionate representation (Artiles et al, 2010): • Over 1/3 of students with LD drop out of school • Culturally and linguistically diverse students with LD less likely to go to college than white students with LD • Estimated range of youth with disabilities in detention, private & public correctional facilities: 30-70% • Disproportionate representation signals larger systemic issues and the need for more culturally responsive practice in schools
Instruction and Interventions • Recommendations for Classroom: • Culturally responsive pedagogy • Primary language support/instruction • Actively involve students’ parents in learning • Regular dialogue between teachers and students • Oral language development • Collaborative learning tasks • Focus on developing higher order cognitive skills
Instruction and Interventions Instructional practices and interventions shown to have positive outcomes for ELLs with disabilities • Classroom instruction: • Instructional conversations • Sheltered content instruction • Peer assisted learning strategies (PALS) • Differentiated instruction using Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Fostering self-monitoring skills • The Olé Project • Interventions: • Phonological awareness interventions • Embedded in writing and vocabulary lessons • Combined w/ token economy • Intensive, small group reading interventions
Instruction and Interventions • Teacher preparation • Lack of preparation to serve ELLs with special needs • Rodriguez (2005): What do bilingual special education practitioners think is most needed in teacher prep programs? • 100 practitioners • 85% proficiency in two languages • 82% knowledge of assessments • 79% planning and delivery of instruction • 71% cultural competence • 67% promoting and maintaining professionalism
Discussion Questions • What stood out to you in the information presented about the representation of ELLs in special education? • What stood out to you in the information presented about instruction and interventions for ELLs with disabilities? • Are there any other issues related to representation or instruction and interventions that you would like to know more about? • What are common problems educators in your state/district face with regards to these topic? What initiatives, if any, have been taken to address these problems?
Whole Group Share What are some additional questions that you have?
References Artiles, A. J. (2004). The End of Innocence: Historiography and Representation in the Discursive Practice of LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(6), 550–555. Artiles, A. J. (2011). Toward an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Educational Equity and Difference: The Case of the Racialization of Ability. Educational Researcher, 40(9), 431–445. Artiles, A. J., & Bal, A. (2008). The Next Generation of Disproportionality Research: Toward a Comparative Model in the Study of Equity in Ability Differences. The Journal of Special Education, 42(1), 4–14. Artiles, A. J., & Trent, S. C. (1994). Overrepresentation of Minority Students in Special Education: A Continuing Debate. The Journal of Special Education, 27(4), 410–437. Artiles, A. (2003). Identity : Paradoxes and Dilemmas in Views of Culture and Space, 73(2), 164–203. Artiles, A., & Harry, B. (2006). Addressing Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Student Overrepresentation in Special Education: Guidelines for Parents. National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt). Artiles, A. J., Harry, B., Reschly, D. J., & Chinn, P. C. (2002). Over-Identification of Students of Color in Special Education: A Critical Overview. Multicultural Perspectives, 4(1), 3–10. Artiles, A. J., & Klingner, J. K. (2006). Forging a Knowledge Base on English Language Learners with Special Needs: Theoretical, Population, and Technical Issues. Teachers College Record, 108(11), 2187–2194. Artiles, A. J., Ortiz, A. A., & . (2002). English language learners with special education needs. Artiles, A. J., Rueda, R., Salazar, J. J., & Higareda, I. (2005). Within-Group Diversity in Minority Disproportionate Representation: English Language Learners in Urban School Districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283–300. Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76(3), 279–299. Boscardin, M. L., Ph, D., Brown-chidsey, R., Guess, C., Ed, D., Durkin, P., … Vargas, E. L. (2001). Educating Students with Disabilities from Diverse Backgrounds. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 14(2). Brown, J. E., & Doolittle, J. (2004). Framework for Response to Intervention With English Language Learners. Case, R. E., & Taylor, S. S. (2005). Difference or Learning Language Disability? Answers from a linguistic perspective, 78(3), 127–130.
References (Cont.) Chu, S., & Flores, S. (2011). Assessment of English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities. The Clearing House, 84(6), 244. Cuevas, G. J., & Beech, M. C. (1983). A second-language aproach to mathematics skills: Applications for limited-English proficient students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 6(4), 489–495. Echevarria, J. (1995). Interactive reading instruction : A comparison of proximal and distal effects of instructional conversations. Exceptional Children, 61(6), 536–552. Echevarria, J., & Graves, A. (1999). Sheltered Content Instruction: Teaching English-Language Learners with Diverse Abilities. Echevarria, J., & McDonough, R. (1995). An Alternative Reading Approach: Instructional Conversations in a Bilingual Special Education Setting. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 10(2), 108–119. Figueroa, R. A., & Newsome, P. (2006). The Diagnosis of LD in English Learners: Is It Nondiscriminatory? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(3), 206–214. Ford, D. Y. (2012). Culturally Different Students in Special Education Looking Backward to Move Forward. Exceptional Children, 78(4), 391–405. Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2005). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for English Language Learners With Learning Disabilities, 71(3). Garcia, M. (2012). Strategies to Help English Language Learners Succeed in the Least Restrictive Environment Education. Garcia, S. B., Mendez Perez, a., & Ortiz, a. a. (2000). Mexican American Mothers’ Beliefs About Disabilities: Implications for Early Childhood Intervention. Remedial and Special Education, 21(2), 90–120. Garcia, S. B., & Ortiz, A. A. (1988). Preventing Inappropriate Referrals of Language Minority Students to Special Education. NCBE New Focus, 5. García, S. B., & Ortiz, A. a. (2006). Preventing Disproportionate Representation: Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Prereferral Interventions. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(4), 64–68. Garcia, S. B., & Tyler, B. J. (2010). Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners With Learning Disabilities in the General Curriculum. Theory into Practice, 49(2), 113–120.
References (Cont.) Gersten, R., & Geva, E. (2003). Teaching reading to early language learners. Educational Leadership, 44–49. Guarino, C. M., Buddin, R., Pham, C., & Cho, M. (2009). Demographic Factors Associated With the Early Identification of Children With Special Needs. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30(3), 162–175. Haager, D. (2007). Promises and Cautions regarding using Response to Intervention with English Language Learners. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30(3), 213–218. doi:10.2307/30035565 Haager, D., & Windmueller, M. P. (2001). Early Reading Intervention for English Language Learners At-Risk for Learning Disabilities: Student and Teacher Outcomes in an Urban School. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(4), 235–250. Hart, J. E. (2009). Strategies for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students With Special Needs. Preventing School Failure, 53(3), 197–208. Healy, K., Vanderwood, M., & Edelston, D. (2005). Early literacy interventions for English language learners: Support for an RTI Model. The California School Psychologist, 10, 55–63. Hoover, J. J., & Patton, J. R. (2005). Differentiating Curriculum and Instruction for English-Language Learners With Special Needs. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(4), 231–235. Huang, J., Clarke, K., Milczarski, E., & Raby, C. (2011). the Assessment of English Language Learners With Learning Disabilities: Issues, Concerns, and Implications. Education, 131(4), 732–739. Keller-allen, C. (2006). English language learners with disabilities: Identification and other state policies and issues. Klingner, J., & Artiles, A. J. (2006). Struggling to Learn to Read : Emergent Scholarship on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 386–389. Klingner, J., Hoover, J., & Baca, L. (2008). Why Do English Language Learners Struggle with Reading?: Distinguishing Language Acquisition from Learning Disabilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Klingner, J. K., & Artiles, A. J. (2003). When should bilingual students be in special education? Educational Leadership, 66–71. Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., & Barletta, L. M. (2006). Struggle With Reading : Language Acquisition or LD ?, 39(2), 108–128.
References (Cont.) Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., Kozleski, E., Harry, B., Zion, S., Tate, W., … Riley, D. (2005). Addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education through culturally responsive educational systems, 1–43. Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., Kozleski, E., Harry, B., Zion, S., Tate, W., … Riley, D. (2005). Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally Responsive Educational Systems. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13, 43. Leafstedt, J. M., Richards, C. R., & Gerber, M. M. (2004). Effectiveness of Explicit Phonological-Awareness Instruction for At-Risk English Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 19(4), 252–261. Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T. (2006). The Response to Intervention of English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 390–398. Linn, D., & Hemmer, L. (2011). English Language Learner Disproportionality in Special Education : Implications for the Scholar- ‐ Practitioner, 1(1), 70–80. Liu, K. K., Watkins, E., Pompa, D., McLeod, P., & Elliott, J. (2013). Following Patxi’s Lead: A Child-Centered Journey of Learning and Language. Impact. Liu, Y.-J., Ortiz, a. a., Wilkinson, C. Y., Robertson, P., & Kushner, M. I. (2008). From Early Childhood Special Education to Special Education Resource Rooms: Identification, Assessment, and Eligibility Determinations for English Language Learners With Reading-Related Disabilities. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33(3), 177–187. Mccardle, P., & Mele-mccarthy, J. (2005). English Language Learners and Learning Disabilities : Research Agenda and Implications for Practice, 20(1), 68–78. Mccardle, P., Mele-mccarthy, J., Cutting, L., Leos, K., & Emilio, T. D. (2005). Learning Disabilities in English Language Learners : Identifying the Issues, 20(1), 1–5. McMaster, K. L., Kung, S.-H., Han, I., & Cao, M. (2008). Peer-assisted learning strategies: A “Tier 1” approach to promoting English learners’ response to intervention . Exceptional Children, 74(2), 194–214. Mueller, T. G., George, H. S., & Elizabeth, J. (2004). The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and California ’ s ... Bilingual Research Journal, 28(2), 231–293. NEA. (2007). Special Education and English Language Learners. Focus on Hispanics, (December).
References (Cont.) Ortiz, A. A. (1997). Learning Disabilities Occurring Concomitantly with Linguistic Differences. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(3), 321–332. Ortiz, A. A., Wilkinson, C. Y., Robertson-Courtney, P., & Kushner, M. I. (2006). Considerations in Implementing Intervention Assistance Teams to Support English Language Learners. Remedial and Special Education, 27(1), 53–63. Ortiz, A. (2001). English language learners with special needs: Effective instructional strategies. ERIC Digest, 1–8. Ortiz, A. A., Robertson, P. M., Wilkinson, C. Y., Liu, Y.-J., McGhee, B. D., & Kushner, M. I. (2011). The Role of Bilingual Education Teachers in Preventing Inappropriate Referrals of ELLs to Special Education: Implications for Response to Intervention. Bilingual Research Journal, 34(3), 316–333. Paneque, O. M., & Barbetta, P. M. (2006). A Study of Teacher Efficacy of Special Education Teachers of English Language Learners With Disabilities. Bilingual Research Journal, 30(1), 171–193. Pugh, K. R., Sandak, R., Frost, S. J., Moore, D., & Mencl, W. E. (2005). Examining Reading Development and Reading Disability in English Language Learners: Potential Contributions from Functional Neuroimaging. Learning Disabilities Research Practice, 20(1), 24–30. Richards, H. V., Artiles, A. J., Klingner, J., & Brown, A. (2005). Equity in Special Education Placement : A School Self-Assessment Guide for Culturally Responsive Practice (pp. 1–19). Rinaldi, C., & Samson, J. F. (2008). English language learners and Response to Intervention: Referral considerations. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 6–14. Rodriguez, D. (2005). A Conceptual Framework of Bilingual Special Education Teacher Programs, 1960–1969. Rueda, R., & Ragusa, G. (2010). English Language Learners with Special Needs, 701–707. Rueda, R., & Windmueller, M. P. (2006). English Language Learners, LD, and Overrepresentation: A Multiple-Level Analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 99–107. Ruiz, N. T. (1999). Effective literacy instruction for Latino students receiving special education services: A review of classroom research. Bilingual Review, 24(1/2), 161–174.
References (Cont.) Ruiz, N. T., Vargas, E., & Beltran, A. (2002). Becoming a Reader and Writer in a Bilingual Special Education Classroom. Language Arts, 79(4), 297–309. Shifrer, D., Muller, C., & Callahan, R. (2011). Disproportionality and learning disabilities: parsing apart race, socioeconomic status, and language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(3), 246–57. Shore, J. R., & Sabatini, J. (2009). English language learners with reading disabilities: A review of the literature and the foundation for a research agenda, (May). Spinelli, C. G. (2008). Addressing the Issue of Cultural and Linguistic Diversity and Assessment: Informal Evaluation Measures for English Language Learners. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24(1), 101–118. Sullivan, A. L., & Artiles, A. J. (2011). Theorizing Racial Inequity in Special Education: Applying Structural Inequity Theory to Disproportionality. Urban Education, 46(6), 1526–1552. Swanson, H. L., Leilani, S., & Gerber, M. (2004). Do Phonological and Executive Processes in English Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities in Grade 1 Predict Performance in Grade 2?, 19(4), 225–238. Valenzuela, J. S. De, Copeland, S. R., Qi, C. H., & Park, M. (2006). Examining educational equity: Revisiting the disproportionate representation of minority students in special education. Exceptional Children, 72(4), 425–441. Vaughn, S., Mathes, P. G., Linan-Thompson, S., & Francis, D. J. (2005). Teaching English Language Learners At Risk for Reading Disabilities to Read : Putting Research into Practice. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 20(1), 58–67. Wagner, R. K., Francis, D. J., & Morris, R. D. (2005). Identifying English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities : Key Challenges and Possible Approaches. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 20(1), 6–15. Wilkinson, C. Y., Ortiz, A. A., Robertson, P. M., & Kushner, M. I. (2006). English Language Learners With Reading-Related LD: Linking Data From Multiple Sources to Make Eligibility Determinations. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 129–141. Xu, Y., & Drame, E. (2007). Culturally Appropriate Context: Unlocking the Potential of Response to Intervention for English Language Learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(4), 305–311. Zehler, A. M., Fleischman, H. L., Hopstock, P. J., Stephenson, T. G., Pendzick, M. L., & Sapru, S. (n.d.). Policy Report: Summary of Findings Related to LEP and SpEd-LEP Students.