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Acts: Luke’s Second Volume

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  1. Acts: Luke’s Second Volume Luke 1:1-4 Many have undertaken to draw up an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed down to us by those who from the first were eyewitnesses and servants of the word. Therefore, since I myself have carefully investigated everything from the beginning, it seemed good also to me to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught. Acts 1:1 In my former book, Theophilus, I wrote about all that Jesus began to do and to teach until the day he was taken up to heaven, after giving instructions through the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen

  2. Acts: Luke’s Second Volume • Acts of the Apostles • Peter: Chapters 1-12 • Paul: Chapters 13-28 Acts of the Holy Spirit Pentecost (Acts 2) Mighty Deeds/Wonders Acts of the Holy Spirit through People Peter - Paul - Stephen - Philip - Barnabas - Priscilla

  3. What is Acts? • History? Theology? Theological History: Divine Explanation for On-going Work of Jesus in and through People

  4. Reading Keys for Acts • Examples of Divine Explanation • Apostles need explanation about Nature of Kingdom: Acts 1:6 • 2. People need explanation about nature of Spirit: Acts 2:12; 2:17-21; 2:37

  5. Reading Keys for Acts Examples of Divine Explanation 3. Jewish Leaders need explanation about Power of God in the Christian movement Acts 4:7; 5:38-42 4. Christian Leaders need explanation about nature of New Testament Church Acts 10:17-21

  6. Outline of Acts Chapters 1-12 Primarily Peter Primarily Jewish Acts 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and in Samaria, and to the ends of the earth. Chapters 13-28 Primarily Paul Primarily Gentile

  7. Outline of Acts Rome Ends of the Earth Chs. 13-28 Judea and Samaria Chs. 8-12 JerusalemChs.2-7 Jews only Jews, Samaritans, God-fearers Jews, Samaritans, God-fearers, Gentiles

  8. Outline of Acts Goal #1 Geographic (Rome) Acts 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and in Samaria, and to the ends of the earth. Goal #2 Missionary (Witnesses) Goal #3 Spirit-Filled Witness

  9. Unique Contribution of Acts 1. History and Theology in Speeches 30% (300 out of 1,000 verses) of Acts is in the form of speeches Christian Speeches Peter (8 speeches) Paul (9 speeches) Stephen (7:2-53) James (15:13-21) Non-Christian Speeches Gamaliel (5:35-39) Ephesus Town Clerk (19:35-40) Festus (25:24-27)

  10. Unique Contribution of Acts 2. The Exalted Christ Began in Volume 1, LukeJesus’ Words (Luke 9:1)  Actual ascension (Luke 24:50-51) Continues in volume 2, Acts Luke the Narrator (Acts 1:1-2)  Angels (Acts 1:9)  Peter’s Sermon (Acts 2:33)  Stephen’s Death (Acts 7:55)

  11. Unique Contribution of Acts 3.The Holy Spirit Began in Volume 1, Luke Birth Narrative of John the Baptist (Luke 1:15; 1:17)  Birth Narrative of Jesus (Luke 1:35; 1:41)  Zechariah’s Prophecy / Song (Luke 1:67)  Simeon’s Prophecy in Temple (Luke 2:25; 2:26; 2:27)  Jesus’ Baptism (Luke 3:16; 3:22)  Jesus’ 1st Sermon (Luke 4:17)

  12. Unique Contribution of Acts 3. The Holy Spirit Continues in Volume 2, Acts  Opening Narrative (Acts 1:2)  Jesus’ Instruction (Acts 1:5; 8)  Pentecost (Acts 2)  Character and ministry of Apostles (Acts 4:8; 6:3; 6:5; 7:55; 11:24)  Guidance (Acts 16:6; 16:7; 20:22)  Prophecy (Acts 20:23; 21:4; 21:10-11) Holy Spirit permeates Christian life and ministry at every conceivable point

  13. Unique Contribution of Acts 4. The EMERGING Church Not fixed but dynamic Jerusalem (Acts 2:42-47; 4:32-37) Judea & Samaria Philip and Ethiopian (8:26-40) Ends of the Earth (Rome) Paul and Barnabas in Lystra (14:8-18) Church and Evangelistic approach must change with culture. (Cultural Contextualization)

  14. Unique Contribution of Acts 4. The EMERGING Church Central authority; diverse leadership  Apostles in Jerusalem (Acts 2-5)  Deacons Chosen (Acts 6) Minister (Acts 7-9:31); BUT Apostles Oversee (Acts 9:32-15:35)  Mission to Gentiles (Acts 12-28) Appointment of Elders (14:21-23) and Gentile churches support Mother Church in Jerusalem (Collection; 1 Cor 16:1)

  15. World of Acts Roman Rule Julius Caesar (d. 44 B.C.) Caesar Augustus (a.k.a. Octavian) (27 B.C.-A.D.14) (Luke 2:1) Tiberius (A.D.14-37) (Luke 3:1) Caligula (A.D.37-41) Claudius (A.D.41-54) (Acts 11:28; 18:2) Nero (A.D.54-68) (Acts 25:10-12; 27:24)

  16. World of Acts Hellenistic World Rome ruled the world through military might BUT Greece influenced the world through ideas •Language •Social Order •Religions No separation of politics / religion / social world Summary: New Testament Church was not born in a religious or cultural vacuum.

  17. Acts 2 - Pentecost 1. The Event of Pentecost (2:1-13) a. The Fulfillment of the Father’s Promise Luke 24:45-49 / Acts 1:8

  18. Acts 2 - Pentecost 1. The Event of Pentecost (2:1-13) b. The Description of the event Timing: Feast of Pentecost (50 days after Passover) Celebration of Harvest (Ex 23:16) Celebration of Giving of Law (Anniversary of Giving of Law) Jewish tradition associates Mt Sinai with wind, fire, voice Heb 12:18-19 Three Signs: Sound like . . . Blowing wind Sight like . . . Tongues of fire Speak in other languages (dialects)

  19. Acts 2 - Pentecost Tongues: GlossolaliaActs 2 vs. 1 Corinthians 12 & 14 Different in direction Public Praise to God 2:11 14:2; 14-17, 28 Different in Character Understood Unintelligible, by all needed interpreter Different in purpose Bearing witness Self -Edification; to outpouring of Building of Church Holy Spirit

  20. Acts 2 - Pentecost • Of prophecy and tongues, which does Paul encourage more for the Corinthians (14:1-2, 5)? • What is the main draw back to the use of tongues in worship, according to 14:2, 4, 5, 7-12, 13-17, 19? • Did Paul speak in tongues (14:18)? Do you think he was being “Tongue in cheek” here in reference to his ability to speak numerous languages or that he really did privately speak in ecstatic speech (cf. Rom 8:26)? • Under what circumstances did Paul allow the use of tongues in public worship? • Did Paul forbid speaking in tongues?

  21. Acts 2 - Pentecost • 2. The Explanation of Pentecost (2:14-41) a. Speeches in Acts Complete Verbatim accounts or summaries? • With many other words he warned them; and he pleaded with them, “Save yourselves from this corrupt generation.” (2:40-41) • Summaries abound in Acts. (2:47; 4:4; 5:14; 6:7; 9:31; 9:42; 11:21; 12:24; 13:48; 16:5; 19:20; 28:30-31)

  22. Acts 2 - Pentecost 2. The Explanation of Pentecost (2:14-41) b. Formation of the Kerygma of Jesus *Foretold in Scriptures 2:14-21 *Jesus’ life 2:22 *Jesus’ Death 2:23 *Jesus’ Resurrection 2:24-32 *Jesus’ Exaltation 2:33-36 *Jesus’ Salvation 2:37-39 *Jesus’ New Community 2:40-41

  23. Acts 6 – Choosing of Deacons 1. Problem: Numbers growing, Care deteriorating Hebrew widows cared for; Greeks overlooked These cultural and social distinctions perpetuated into the new community; and had to be eliminated (see John 17:22; Gal 3:28; Eph 2:14-18; Col 3:11) 2. Solution: The Twelve appoint Seven Note: All seven had Greek names The deacons move the Gospel (6:7)

  24. Acts 9 – Damascus Road Experience 1. Paul the Persecutor (Acts 8:1-4, 9:1-3) Note 1:8 vs. 8:1 Jerusalem (Acts 2-7) Judea/Samaria (8-12) Ends of the earth (13-28) Note 8:3-4 Paul attempts to destroy the church The church was scattered Word to Samaria Qs. How does this impact our view of persecution?

  25. Acts 9 – Damascus Road Experience Who Was Saul (Paul) before meeting Jesus? •born in Tarsus •Jew, Pharisee of Pharisee (Phil 3:4-6) •trained by Gamaliel I, in Jerusalem •most likely tri-lingual (Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic; Acts 22:1)

  26. Acts 9 – Damascus Road Experience Why was Saul (Paul) a persecutor of Christians?(Acts 9:1-2) 1. Paul’s persecution of the Christian Church could be validated through scripture! •Phil 3:4-6 •Deut 21:23 •Numbers 25:1-15

  27. Acts 9 – Damascus Road Experience 2. Paul’s persecution of the Church could be validated through extra-Biblicalhistory! •2 Macc 6:13 “In fact, it is a sign of great kindness not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately!” •Qumran (Dead Sea Scrolls) “A righteous man shows unremitting hatred toward all men of ill repute” (1QS 9:22) “The nearer I draw to you, the more I am filled with zeal against all who do wickedness” (1QS 4:13)

  28. Acts 9 – Damascus Road Experience 3. Paul’s persecution could be validated through Jewish and Romanpublic policy! •Josephus records a friendly relationship renewed which makes Rome overall rulers but the Sadducean high priests were given authority over most internal matters, especially in strictly religious matters. (Antiq XIII, 259-66; XIV 145-48) See Acts 9:1-2

  29. Acts 9 – Damascus Road Experience • What Happened on the Road? (Acts 9:3-6) • Saw a light from Heaven / Heard a Voice • 2. Brief Encounter • Jesus: “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?” • Paul: “Who are you, Lord?” • Jesus: “I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting”

  30. Acts 9 – Damascus Road Experience Revelation of Christ that Paul was confronted with: 1. Jesus is alive! Must revaluate everything, since God has raised him from the dead 2. Paul stands under God’s rebuke! Light and Voice from heaven corrected him

  31. Acts 9 – Damascus Road Experience Revelation of Christ that Paul was confronted with: 3. Jesus and His church are one body Why do you persecute me? 4. Mission to Gentiles No distinction between Jew and Gentiles

  32. Acts 10 & 11– Peter, Cornelius, and the Church • Peter has responded boldly to challenges of sickness and death. (Acts 9:32-43) • We have seen Peter at Pentecost, then taking gospel to Samaritans, but will Acts 1:8 be pushed further . . . Gospel to the Gentiles? • How will he respond to the challenge of racial and religious discrimination?(Acts 10-11)

  33. Acts 10 & 11– Peter, Cornelius, and the Church • Gentile-Jew Divide • Not Biblical, but Racial / Cultural for God’s purpose has always been… • All nations would be blessed Gen 12:2-3 • All nations will worship Isaiah 2:2-3 • Messiah will accomplish this Psalm 2:7-8

  34. Acts 10 & 11– Peter, Cornelius, and the Church • Gentile-Jew Divide • Not Biblical, but Racial / Cultural • To the Jews, gentiles were “dogs” • No Jew could enter home of gentile • All conversation with gentiles was avoided.

  35. Acts 10 & 11– Peter, Cornelius, and the Church • Description of Cornelius (Acts 10:1-8) • 2. Vision of Peter (Acts 10:9-23) • 3. Answer in the Form of Holy Spirit (Acts 10:23-48, esp. 44-48) • 4. Peter Understands God’s Agenda, and convinces Church (Acts 11:1-18)

  36. Acts 15 – Jerusalem Council 49 AD Point of the Issue (15:1-5) Without Circumcision, you can not be saved! Compare Gal 2:11-15

  37. Acts 15 – Jerusalem Council 49 AD • Sides: • Believers of the Men of the Pharisees (15:5) • Moses first, Grace Second • Peter (15:7-11) • Witness #1: We treat Gentiles as God Does • Barnabas and Paul (15:12) • Witness #2: God working in and thru Gentiles

  38. Acts 15 – Jerusalem Council 49 AD Sides: 4. James (15:13-21) Final Verdict: We are in agreement with Words of Prophets (15:15) Welcome Gentiles as brothers and sisters Gentiles should respect Jewish law (cf. Romans 14-15)