Engineering Structures 101 Structural Engineering: From the Beginning Professor Martin FaheyHead, School of Civil & Resource EngineeringRoom A1.10(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. 1150 -1220. Example of Gothic Architecture
Notre Dame de Paris: North Rose Window. Suspended in perfect equilibrium on a web of stone, the immense north rose window remains intact after 700 years, its intricately interlocking blocks so exact they ring when struck. Though individual blocks may be removed for repairs without collapsing the whole, only minor buckling has occurred 17 m 13 m
Notre Dame de Paris. Schematic sections showing the “flying butresses”
Decorative features on tops of columns (statues, pinnacles, as in Notre Dame, below) have stabilising function
Bourges Cathedral, France, 1214. Most efficient flying buttress system ever constructed.
Sections through various French Gothic Cathedrals, showing progressive development
Dome: 3-dimensional equivalent of an arch.Pantheon, Rome, 118-128 AD. Temple to “all the gods”
Interior of dome of Pantheon is semi- circular (hemispherical)
Pantheon: Interior. Biggest clear span until 19th century
Pantheon: Interior. Light provided by circular hole (“occulus”) in the top
Hagia, Sophia, Istanbul, 537 AD. Interior, showing support system for central dome
Hagia, Sophia, Istanbul, 537 AD. Schematic showing support system for central dome
Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, Italy. Begun in 1296. “Segmented dome” added by Brunelleschi in 1436. 42 m span, 91 m high. Built without “centering”
Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, Italy. Begun in 1296. Dome added by Brunelleschi in 1436. 42 m span, 91 m high. Built without “centering” Shape is arch “a quinto acuto”
Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, is not hemispherical, but is made up of 8 segments.
Interior of St Peter’s Basilica, Rome, showing dome resting on four arches supported by four great pillars
“Hanging chain” analysis of Dome of St Peter’s, by Giovani Poleni, 1742
Gateway Arch, St Louis, USA. This free-standing arch is 630 ft. high and the world's tallest. Built of triangular section of double-walled stainless steel, the space between the skins being filled with concrete after each section was placed. Looks like perfect “inverted catenary” shape.
Interior of Carmel Mission. Built in 1793 it is an interesting design in that the walls curve inward towards the top, and the roof consists of a series of inverted catenary arches built of native sandstone quarried from the nearby Santa Lucia Mountains. (Carmel, California)
St Paul’s Cathedral Dome (3 domes inside each other)
Hooke’s “hanging chain” concept applied to the dome of Christopher Wren’s St Paul’s Cathedral. The “lantern” on top of the dome distorts the “chain”
Sources The pictures contained in this presentation were either downloaded from the Internet, or scanned in from books. The sources are too numerous to list.