widening participation in higher education l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Widening Participation in Higher Education PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Widening Participation in Higher Education

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 53

Widening Participation in Higher Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 281 Views
  • Uploaded on

Widening Participation in Higher Education Haroon Chowdry Institute for Fiscal Studies Background & Motivation Background I: Economics Human capital is a crucial feature in the development of most economies Source: OECD and IMF (2007) Background I: Economics

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Widening Participation in Higher Education' - emily


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
widening participation in higher education

Widening Participation in Higher Education

Haroon Chowdry

Institute for Fiscal Studies

background i economics
Background I: Economics

Human capital is a crucial feature in the development of most economies

Source:

OECD and IMF

(2007)

background i economics4
Background I: Economics

OECD (2007): half of all GDP/capita growth due to rising labour productivity

Efficiency

Maximise stock of education and skills in the population

background i economics5
Background I: Economics

HE has financial (and other?) returns

Source: OECD (2007)

background i economics6
Background I: Economics

OECD (2007): private IRR to a university degree exceeds 8% in all member nations

Equity

Who enjoys these benefits?

background ii trends8
Background II: Trends

…Access to HE in UK disproportionately limited to those from higher socioeconomic groups…

background ii trends9
Background II: Trends

… As is access to the top universities

background iii policy
Background III: Policy

UK target of 50% HE participation by 2010

Higher Education Act 2004

Top-up fees (deferred)

Discouraging entry?

Potential variable fees in future

Two-tier system?

Not yet clear how participation has been affected

Yet stakes are higher than ever

research questions
Research questions

Why do these inequalities in HE access exist?

Credit constraints

Information about HE

Type of school

Discrimination?

Prior attainment

Where should policy interventions, if any, be targeted?

slide12
Data

We use administrative data on all English state school pupils to look at these issues

Cohort in Year 11 in 2001/2002

Followed until 2004/5 (1st year HE)

History of academic results from 11 to 18

Basic social/demographic characteristics

Other neighbourhood information

Proxy for parental income

Proxy for parental education

raw social gradients
Raw social gradients

Material deprivation

raw social gradients15
Raw social gradients

Parental education

explaining the gradient
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (males)
explaining the gradient23
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (males)
explaining the gradient24
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (males)
explaining the gradient25
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (males)
explaining the gradient26
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (females)
explaining the gradient27
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (females)
explaining the gradient28
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (females)
explaining the gradient29
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (females)
explaining the gradient30
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (males)
explaining the gradient31
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (males)
explaining the gradient32
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (males)
explaining the gradient33
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (males)
explaining the gradient34
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (females)
explaining the gradient35
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (females)
explaining the gradient36
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (females)
explaining the gradient37
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (females)
participation findings
Participation findings

Reduced chances of going into HE almost entirely due to academic factors

School characteristics and other dimensions also play a role

Conditional on history of prior attainment, social inequalities are negligible

All ethnic minorities far more likely to attend

background
Background

Interested in not just whether you go, but where you go

Evidence that poorer/ethnic minority participants under-represented at top universities

Also has equity implications

raw social gradients41
Raw social gradients

Income/deprivation

explaining the gradient44
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (males)
explaining the gradient45
Explaining the gradient?
  • Material deprivation (females)
explaining the gradient46
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (males)
explaining the gradient47
Explaining the gradient?
  • Parental education (females)
explaining the gradient48
Explaining the gradient?
  • Ethnicity (males)
explaining the gradient49
Explaining the gradient?
  • Ethnicity (females)
quality findings
Quality findings

Observable characteristics, specifically academic record, account for almost all of the social gradients

Still a slight gap at the top

Subject choice?

Unobserved heterogeneity?

Other aspects of application process?

Ethnic ‘penalties’ still reversed

conclusions
Conclusions

Massive social inequalities in HE

Even among those who attend

Can generally be explained by social inequalities in previous schooling

Socioeconomic class still matters

conclusions52
Conclusions

Effective WP policies should target the divergence between rich and poor at school

conclusions53
Conclusions

Effective WP policies should target the divergence between rich and poor at school

But when, and how, to intervene?

Post-16

EMA?

Summer schools?

Schools

Targeting resources?

Lotteries?

Early years

Nursery places?

Childcare?