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Marathons

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  1. Marathons What to do when… people overstress their poor bodies!

  2. Tonight… • Overview of marathon • Main marathon injuries and illnesses • How to deal with them • Brief survey of your desires!

  3. The London Marathon • 1981 – First London Marathon • 20,000 applied • 7,747 accepted • 6,255 finished! • 2008 • 46,500 applied • 34,497 finished • Ballot places • Charity runners

  4. In terms of First Aid • >1000 St John members on duty • LINKS are aiming to run a sector soon • LINKS are a huge presence • Lots of IC members on duty • Lots of casualties!  /  • Lots of vaseline! • Fun!

  5. What we provide… • 1,400 volunteers including doctors, nurses, paramedics and trained first aiders of all ages. • That's one volunteer for every 35 metres of the course • 68 ambulances are positioned around the course • 41 first aid stations • 88lbs of petroleum jelly to help prevent chaffing and blistering • 5,000 foil blankets • 5,000 cotton wool balls • 1,000 vomit bags • Approximately 5,000 runners will stop for first aid support or simply encouragement; the vast majority will go on to finish.

  6. Menu: • Blisters • Sprains and Strains • Vomiting • Dehydration • Collapse • Electrolyte Imbalance • Chafing! • Cramp • Heat Exhaustion • Heat Stroke • Seizure • Heart Attack

  7. Chafing and Blisters…

  8. Chafing and Blisters… • Very painful • Don’t pop them • Padded dressing • be creative • If popped • clean and dress • Cover large area

  9. Cramp • Painful, sudden and involuntary muscle contraction or spasm • Can last for a long time • Immobilising • Due to: • Build up of toxins in muscles • Excessive loss of water and salt (sweat)

  10. Cramp Treatment: • Stretch affected muscle (Support) • Give Gatorade or similar. NOT just water • Carefully but firmly massage • Don’t let them whack you! Massage ONLY works with fluid replacement Very severe in collapse – IV fluids / diazepam

  11. Cramp Foot: Stand on front of foot. Wait. Massage Calf: Lay down. Straighten knee. Flex toes. Massage upwards Thigh: Lay down. Bend or straighten leg. Massage Abdomen/Trunk: Rest

  12. Sprains and Strains • What are they? • Strain: Muscle overstretched or torn

  13. Sprain – Ligament tear at/near joint

  14. Strains and Sprains Causes • Violent or sudden movements • Sport! • Symptoms: • Pain and tenderness • Difficulty moving it • Swelling and bruising

  15. Strains and Sprains If you’re not sure = Fracture treatment Rest Lay down Ice Ice pack Compression Gentle and even Elevation Lift the injured part Very severe pain / unable to weight bear  doctor/hospital

  16. Stress Fracture • Bone pain may be stress fracture • Incomplete fracture • Repeated or unusual stress • Should advise against continuing • Doctor/nurse • Paperwork

  17. Heat + Running 26 miles = messy - Heat exhaustion = loss of salt and water via sweat = gradual onset - Heat stroke = failure of body to regulate temperature = long time in heat = rapid, unconscious within minutes

  18. Symptoms • Headache, dizzy, confused • Nausea • Cramps in arms, legs, abdomen • Rapid, weak pulse • Rapid weak breathing • Headache, dizzy, discomfort • Restless, confused • Fast loss of response • Full, bounding pulse

  19. Heat Exhaustion Treatment: • Lay down in cool place • Raise legs • Give water then weak salt solution (Gatorade) • Must see a doctor • Be ready to use recovery position and CPR

  20. Heat Stroke Treatment: MUST GO TO HOSPITAL • Quickly  Cooler place • Remove outer clothes • 999 / Help / Radio • Wrap in cold, wet sheet and keep it wet until Temp = 38 (tongue) or 37.5 (armpit) • Keep comfortable in semi-recumbent • Replace with dry sheet • Monitor and record vital signs • Be ready to do CPR

  21. Heat + Running 26 miles = messy • Dehydration • Vomiting • Diarrhoea – blood shunting • Water + Gatorade • Damp towel • Rest

  22. Hyponatraemia • Blood = water + protein + electrolytes (salts) • Sweat = water + salts • Water = water • = Problem! • Too little salts

  23. Hyponatremia • Headache • Confusion • Vomiting • Seizures • Death • Swollen ankles

  24. How to tell? • Water vs Sports drinks? • Overloaded vs dehydrated (pinch) • Slow vs fast • Charity vs professionals • Need doctor • Fluid and salt replacement

  25. Collapse • Exercise Related Collapse • Cramps • Dehydration • Hyponatremia • Fatigue • Heat exhaustion / stroke • Heart Attack

  26. Heart Attack • The only person to die in London Marathon: • 22 year old male – Heart Attack

  27. Heart Attack • Recognition • Crushing, tight chest pain • Radiates to jaw, shoulder, arm • Nausea • Breathless • Impending doom! • Ashen skin / blue lips • Rapid weak irregular pulse • Sweaty • Unconscious • Aspirin on them

  28. Heart Attack • Treatment • W position • 999 + Doctor • 300mg aspirin to chew slowly • Angina medicine (sprays) • Rest • Monitor and record vitals • Be prepared for recovery position and CPR

  29. What fun!