Licensing process and licensing documentation for Russian NPPs Presented by N.Fil OKB GIDROPRESS 2004
1. Nuclear Power in Russia OKB “Gidropress” was established in 1946 to design nuclear installations of different type. At present, 50 WWERs of 35 GWe capacity are under operation in 8 countries (23 WWER-1000 and 27 WWER-440).More than 1000 reactor-years have demonstrated high level of WWER-type reactor safety and acceptable economical indices.National program of nuclear power expansion for near future is mainly oriented to advanced WWER-type reactors.Construction of a few advanced WWER-1000s are already licensed in different countries.
In 2003, 16.7 % of Russian electricity was nuclear (over 30% in European part). Nuclear electricity increase in 2003 was 6,3 % to 2002. Over 150 000 GWh will be produced in 2004.Average load factor of Russian NPPs amounted 76,3 % in 2003 (2002 -71.7%) January 2004 - 87.2%. Average load factor for 14 Russian WWERs was 77,8% in 2002. In 2003, load factor for NVNPP (3 units) was 78%, for Kalinin (2 units) was 86.6%. Nuclear electricity cost is 13% less than conventional.
National program is to reach 29 GW by 2010. First stage is lifetime extension and commissioning of units postponed in 80 / 90-ies. NV-3, NV-4, Ko-1: additional licenses for 5 yrs
Second stage is based on new generation NPP designs, first of all - on advanced WWER-type reactors with passive safety features. Implementation of passive safety features originally developed for AES 92 design (WWER-1000/V-392) is already started at Kudankulam, Tianwan, Balakovo projects. WWER-1500/V-448 design is underway to be the basis for large-scale nuclear power extension.
2. Structure of normative documentation on atomic energy use Constitution International treaties Federal laws Normative/legal docs of President and Government Federal norms and rules Normative docs of State regulatory bodies Normative docs of State management bodies
3. Federal Law on Use of Atomic Energy Clause 23: State regulation of safety…is… issuing of permissions (licenses) on the right to perform the works in area of atomic energy use, supervision on safety…. Clause 24: State regulation of safety… is being performed by special authorized Federal bodies of executive power for regulation of nuclear, radiation, technical and fire safety. Clause 26: Permissions (licenses)… are being issued by State regulatory bodies to utilities and also to organizations performing works and providing services in area of atomic energy use. Clause 35: Utility is fully responsible for safety of nuclear installation...
4. Gosatomnadzor RF Federal supervision of Russia on nuclear and radiation safety (Gosatomnadzor RF) is Federal body of executive power. It organizes and performs the state regulation of safety for atomic energy use (except of activities related to nuclear weapons and military nuclear power installations). In accordance with the Law on Use of Atomic Energy (Clause 23), Gosatomnadzor RF is assigned to perform the above activities by Decree of President RF (No. 26 of January 21, 1997).
Structure of Central Board Supervision on nuclear and radiation safety of NPPs
5. Licensing process for Russian NPPs • Central Board of Gosatomnadzor is issuing the licenses for the activities in domain of atomic energy use. • The activities to be licensed are listed in «Regulations on licensing of the activities in domain of atomic energy use» approved by Government RF (No. 865 of July 14, 1997). • In particular, for nuclear installations (including NPPs): • siting, construction, operation, decommissioning; • design; • manufacturing of equipment; • examination of documentation substantiating nuclear and radiation safety.
Licensing process includes: • review of the application for license; • preliminary verification of the docs presented with the application; • review of docs on substantiation of nuclear and radiation safety; • decision on issuing of license (or refusal); • issuing of license (for a certain period) and conditions for its validity; • inspections to verify the meeting of or to change the validity conditions; • renewal, holding-up or termination of license. • License is to be issued for 3 years or more (less is possible if the applicant wants).
Licensing status of some WWERs (as of 2003) • Plant Constr. Crit. EOL COL LED • Kol-3 1974 1981 2011 1998 2011 • Kol-4 1976 1984 2014 1998 2004 • Bal-2 1981 1987 2017 1998 2005 • Bal-3 1982 1988 2018 1999 2004 • Bal-4 1984 1993 2023 1998 2005 • Nov-5 1974 1980 2010 1998 2003 • Kal-1 1977 1984 2014 1998 2003 • Kal-2 1982 1986 2016 1999 2004 • Vol-1 1981 2001 2031 2001 2005
6. Licensing documentation for NPP • According to «Regulations on licensing of the activities in domain of atomic energy use» the applicant shall present to Gosatomnadzor a number of docs, among them: • application with indication of the kind of activity, its object and desired term of license; • confirmation that applicant has right to own or use NI installation; • decision on siting of NI from the relevant body of executive power; • three sets of docs substantiating that nuclear and radiation safety of NI is ensured (composition and content of this set is defined by Gosatomnadzor);
confirmation from relevant State management body on atomic energy use that applicant is capable to perform siting, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of NI; • conclusion of State ecology examination; • confirmation that applicant has financial capability to cover losses and harm from radiation impact; • confirmation on transfer of radwastes being produced; • report on fire protection; • confirmation that applicant has sufficient financial resources for NI decommissioning.
Main document to be presented by applicant for NPP siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning: Safety Substantiation Report (SSR) • SSR format and content for WWERs is prescribed by • “Requirements to the safety substantiation report contents for NPP with WWER type reactors” (PNAE G-01-036-95). • SSR contents is (similar to RG 1.70): • Chapter 1. General description of the nuclear power plant. • Chapter 2. Characteristics of the region and NPP site. • Chapter 3. General approaches to design of buildings, • systems and elements. • Chapter 4. Reactor. • Chapter 5. Primary circuit and related systems.
SSR contents (cont’d) • Chapter 6. Steam-turbine plant. • Chapter 7. Monitoring and control. • Chapter 8. Electric power supply. • Chapter 9. Auxiliary systems of power unit. • Chapter 10. Radioactive waste treatment. • Chapter 11. Protection against radiation. • Chapter 12. Safety systems. • Chapter 13. Operation. • Chapter 14. Commissioning. • Chapter 15. Accident analysis. • Chapter 16. Safe operation limits and conditions, • operational limits. • Chapter 17. Quality assurance. • Chapter 18. Decommissioning.
SSR chapters 12 and 15 have a particular significance. • Chapter 12 is to prove that each safety system will execute its function taking into account: • single failure principle; • all loads (mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, etc.) imposed by accident conditions for which this system is intended. • Chapter 15 is to prove that the nuclear power plant is as a whole safe in terms of main safety standard (OPB-88/97), namely: • radiation impact (doses to plant personnel and population, source term, etc) is less than prescribed under normal operation and design basis accidents; • radiation impact is limited in case of beyond design basis accidents.
As for reactor plant, Chapter 15 is to verify the meeting of so called acceptance criteria: • For DBAs, acceptance criteria are indicators of integrity or permissible damage of physical barriers preventing the radioactivity release (e.g., DNB criterion or primary pressure criterion). • For BDBAs, acceptance criteria relate to prevention or decreasing of the probability of excessive radioactivity release from the containment (e.g., reactor pressure by moment of core melt release from RPV).
Basic mean to verify the fulfillment of above acceptance criteria is accident analyses for full list of initiating events and scenarios using TH and other codes. Main safety standard OPB-88/97 indicates that sample lists of initiating events for DBAs and BDBAs shall be given in normative documents. Up to now, no “normative” list for BDBAs is available. Sample minimal list for DBAs (internal and external events) is given in PNAE G-01-036-95 (format and content of SSR).
INTERNAL EVENTS • Increase of heat removal from primary circuit (FW flow increase, SRV opening, SLB, etc); • Decrease of heat removal from primary circuit (TSV closure, FW pump trip, etc); • Decrease of primary coolant flow rate (MCP trip, MCP shaft break, etc); • Reactivity and power distribution change (CRG withdrawal, CR ejection, FA misloading, etc); • Increase of primary coolant inventory (CVCS malfunction, ECCS operation, etc); • Decrease of coolant inventory including loss of coolant (pipe break, PRZSV opening, PRISE, etc);
INTERNAL EVENTS (cont’d) • Radioactive release from systems and equipment (leak from radwaste pipes, etc); • Loss of secondary circuit coolant (SRV opening, FWLB, SLB); • Loss of power supply (full or partial, at power or refueling, etc); • Malfunctions under the treatment with nuclear fuel (drop of FA, SFP dilution, etc); • Faulty operation of systems (inadvertent actuation of safety systems, etc).
EXTERNAL EVENTS • Seismic effects (earthquake, explosions, airplane drops); • Shock waves (from explosions on NPP site, resulted from human activities); • Flooding (seasonal, break of dams); • Airplane drop (on reactor building, on turbine hall, on cooling systems, etc); • Loss of cooling water (drought, pipeline rupture, etc).
Structure of DBA analysis in SSR Chapter 15: • Description of event’s sequence and systems functioning • Safety evaluation criteria • Analysis of calculation results • Conclusion • "Description of event’s sequence and operation of systems" is event’s sequence and system functioning in table format. • "Safety evaluation criteria" presents the criteria against which the calculation results will be compared. • "Analysis of calculation results" presents detailed information about plant parameter changing, including release and distribution of radioactivity. Parameters calculated shall be compared with relevant acceptance criteria. • "Conclusion" points out main analysis results in terms of NPP safety.