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AAG 2007 San Diego State University April 17-21, San Francisco, CA A New Cartographic Research Agenda for Virtual Globes Session 4510: Virtual Globles: GIS for the Masses? Ming-Hsiang Tsou, Ph.D. Associate Professor E-mail: mtsou@mail.sdsu.edu

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slide1

AAG 2007

San Diego State University

April 17-21, San Francisco, CA

A New Cartographic Research Agenda for Virtual Globes

Session 4510: Virtual Globles: GIS for the Masses?

Ming-Hsiang Tsou, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

E-mail: mtsou@mail.sdsu.edu

The Department of Geography, San Diego State University

impacts of virtual globes for modern cartography research
Impacts of Virtual Globes for Modern Cartography Research

3D Virtual Globes

(link to video)

Traditional 2D Maps

differences virtual globes vs 2d maps

San Diego State University

Differences (Virtual Globes vs. 2D maps)
  • 3D Representation. (Multiple perspectives)
  • Virtual Reality. (more similar to the real world)
  • More dynamic and interactive (multiple layers and hyperlinks to multimedia – pictures, sounds, animations, 3D buildings).
  • Easy to get lost --- difficult to control viewed areas. (Too many controls/buttons) – Flying an airplane… users need some training.
slide5

New Directions for Cartography Research

San Diego State University

  • 3D Representation. (revisit Cartographic Design principles (such as Figure/Ground) in 3D environments)
  • More dynamic and interactive (Need to define new rules for the dynamic layer managements)
  • Virtual Reality. (display environment – super-large screen or CAVE environments. Super-small device for Pocket PC or cellular phone).
  • Easy to get lost --- (Re-design the Graphic User Interface !!! Direct Manipulation !!! ).
slide6

San Diego State University

Cartographic Matrix

For the Virtual Globes and the Internet-based Cartography

(i-Cartography)

(original presented in 2004 AAG meeting, Ming-Hsiang Tsou)

basic concepts

San Diego State University

Basic Concepts
  • Formalize the cartographic design of Virtual Globe Mapping with computational methods. (computational cartography?)
  • Establish a coherent conceptual framework for dynamic multi-layer map display.
  • Improve the 3D map

representation in

Internet GIS applications.

Figure / Background

the cartographic matrix

Map Layers

Layer-sequence

Color

Size

Roads

L (line)

3

Blue

1

Cartographic Variables

Census Track

O (polygons)

6

Sequence

N/A

Symbol Types

Destroyed-Home

P (point)

1

Red

6

Highway

L

2

Red

3

Fire Perimeters

O

4

Cyan

N/A

Thematic

Mapping

(Theme)

Aerial Photos

I (images)

5

Index

(Band 4, 3, 1)

N/A

Sub-cartographic studies (Figure / Ground)

The Cartographic Matrix
  • Inspired by Brain J. L. Berry’s geographic matrix (1964) and Bertin’s Visual variables (1967).
  • Map Layer: Column, Cartographic variables : Row
slide9

Map Layers

Layer-sequence

Color

Size

Roads

L (line)

3

Blue

1

Census Track

O (polygons)

6

Sequence

N/A

Destroyed-Home

P (point)

1

Red

6

Highway

L

2

Red

3

Fire Perimeters

O

4

Cyan

N/A

Aerial Photos

I (images)

5

Index

(Band 4, 3, 1)

N/A

  • Facilitate the cartographic design as an integrated unit (framework), rather than separated, isolated map layers.
  • Explore the dynamic relationships between each layers for Internet mapping.

(Is each layer independent or dependent to other layer?)

Cartographic Variables

Symbol Types

Sub-cartographic studies (Color Scheme)

converting cartographic rules into computer algorithms
Converting Cartographic Rules into Computer Algorithms

Statements:

All point layers should be above all polygon layers.

First-Order Logic:

Computer Program:

number  layout sequences (1:top, 2:second..)

polylayer(x).number = i

pointlayer(y).number = j

If (i < j) then {

polylayer(x).number = j

pointlayer(y).number = i

}

Above( PointLayer(x), PolyLayer(y) )

cartographic matrix for animation

Map Layers

Map Layers

Map Layers

Layer-sequence

Layer-sequence

Layer-sequence

Color

Color

Color

Size

Size

Size

Roads

Roads

Roads

L (line)

L (line)

L (line)

3

3

3

Blue

Blue

Blue

1

1

1

Census Track

Census Track

Census Track

O (polygons)

O (polygons)

O (polygons)

6

6

6

Sequence

Sequence

Sequence

N/A

N/A

N/A

Destroyed-Home

Destroyed-Home

Destroyed-Home

P (point)

P (point)

P (point)

1

1

1

Red

Red

Red

6

6

6

Highway

Highway

Highway

L

L

L

2

2

2

Red

Red

Red

3

3

3

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Fire Perimeters

Fire Perimeters

Fire Perimeters

O

O

O

4

4

4

Cyan

Cyan

Cyan

N/A

N/A

N/A

Symbol Types

Symbol Types

Symbol Types

Aerial Photos

Aerial Photos

Aerial Photos

I (images)

I (images)

I (images)

5

5

5

Index

(Band 4, 3, 1)

Index

(Band 4, 3, 1)

Index

(Band 4, 3, 1)

N/A

N/A

N/A

Cartographic Matrix for Animation
  • Systematic Research Framework for future cartographic research
  • Animation
  • 3D visualization
  • Color scheme
  • Figure/Ground
  • Layer transparency?
  • Sub-matrix?
map display in extra large or extra small screens

Map Layers

Map Layers

Layer-sequence

Layer-sequence

Color

Color

Size

Size

Roads

Roads

L (line)

L (line)

3

3

Blue

Blue

1

1

Census Track

Census Track

O (polygons)

O (polygons)

6

6

Sequence

Sequence

N/A

N/A

Destroyed-Home

Destroyed-Home

P (point)

P (point)

1

1

Red

Red

6

6

Highway

Highway

L

L

2

2

Red

Red

3

3

Original matrix

Original matrix

Fire Perimeters

Fire Perimeters

O

O

4

4

Cyan

Cyan

N/A

N/A

Symbol Types

Symbol Types

Aerial Photos

Aerial Photos

I (images)

I (images)

5

5

Index

(Band 4, 3, 1)

Index

(Band 4, 3, 1)

N/A

N/A

Map Display in Extra-large or Extra-small screens)
  • Automatically transform cartographic matrix for different map display devices (PDA, Pocket PC, cellular phones, large multi-screens display…)

Mobile Device

Conversion

matrix

*

=

Large Screen

Conversion

matrix

*

=

new research agenda for cartography

San Diego State University

New Research Agenda for Cartography
  • Cartographic Matrix (computational cartography) –
    • Dynamic map display/symbol changes
    • Display of extra-large, extra-small devices
  • New methods for dissemination of maps and geospatial information (Virtual Globes in Video Games Console – Nintendo Wii).
  • The design of direct manipulation user interfaces.

Video Demo – Wii are the Masses!

conclusion

San Diego State University

Conclusion
  • New cartographic research directions needed for the Virtual Globes
  • Formalize cartographic rules with computational algorithms (Cartographic Matrix)
  • New idea for the map user interface (Nintendo Wii Remote Example)
  • Virtual Globes for the Masses!!! Internet GIS merged with Video Games!
slide16

Slides and Movies download

  • http://map.sdsu.edu
  • (select the [movie download] in the home page)
  • http://map.sdsu.edu/movies.htm

Thank You

Q & A

Ming-Hsiang Tsou, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

E-mail: mtsou@mail.sdsu.edu