Agenda: A “Virtual Reality” 9.15 am Virtualisation, What is it and Why is it? Rob Lovell (SWsoft) 10.00 am Citrix/Application Virtualisation Fraser Kyne (Citrix) 10.30 am Hardware, Intel and Virtualisation Dimitrios Ziakas (Intel) 11.00 am Coffee Break 11.15 am Virtuozzo 3.5.1 Live Demonstration Paul Martin (SWsoft) 11.45 am Underlying Technologies, and Reducing the risk Andy Bailey (Stratus) 12.15 pm Policy Based Orchestration & Automation Duncan Johnston Watt (Enigmatec) 12.30 pm Close Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Virtualisation:Why and What It Is? A “Virtual Reality” Rob Lovell, Managing Director
SWsoft Corporate Overview and Growth • Headquartered in Herndon, VA • Offices in USA, Europe and Asia • Privately funded, strong financials • Fastest Growing Virtualisation Technology - 98% • In ’05 170+% growth, Funding from by Bessemer, Insight and Intel • Profitable • 8% Market Share of i386 Virtualised Environments • Expert team 600+ • 400+ Top-notch engineers • Organic Hiring Strategy • Alexey Kuznetsov, TCP/IP in Linux • 40+ patents pending • Successfully expanding to Enterprise Market • Market leader position in the ISP/Telco space London, UK Sales & Marketing Moscow,RussiaR&D Novosibirsk,RussiaR&D Frankfurt,GermanyInternational Operations Tokyo,JapanSales & Marketing Beijing, China Sales & Marketing, R&D Headquarters Washington DC Sales & MarketingSupport, Services SingaporeSales & Marketing Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Epigraph "Any problem in computer science can be solved with another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem" David Wheeler Computer Scientist Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Agenda • History and Problems of Commodity Architectures • Virtualisation defined and its benefits • Virtualisation for Production Workloads and more • Hardware partitioning • Virtual Machine Monitors • More on VMM - what is Hypervisor; Paravirtualisation; Intel VT and AMD SVM • OS Virtualisation • Distributed Virtualisation • Application Virtualisation and more • Why Tools, Automation and Resource Management • Virtualisation effect on IT • Does it benefit desktops? • How it changes IT industry and its revenues? • Could Virtualisation enable outsourcing? • Summary and Short Q&A Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Management Costs Software Costs HardwareCosts IDC Costs Problems of Commodity Architecture Operating Systems History and Today 1000s of Specialised Servers Inefficient IT Infrastructure superuser user user user user user App 3 App 4 App 1 App 2 OS • Single Task Single User • Multi-Task Single User • Multi-Task, Multi-User • One-to-one Environment-to-box • Per Applications or User Group • Separately provisioned • Separately managed • Poorly utilised <10% • High cost • Hard to automate • Low flexibility • Low Service Levels Gartner estimate “Intel servers running at 10 to 15 percent utilisation are common.” November 2004: Predicts 2004: Server Virtualisation Evolves Rapidly Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Virtualisation – Braking One-to-One Relationship “…Virtualization is a framework or methodology of dividing the resources of a computer into multiple execution environments...” http://www.kernelthread.com/publications/virtualization/ Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Virtualisation: Simply Better IT Management Model • Cut Cost • On Management, Hardware, Infrastructure, Power and Software • Get More out of the Existing Infrastructure Assets • Hardware, Power Capacity, DC Floor Space, Routers, SAN, IT Staff, etc • Improve Flexibility of IT Infrastructure • Dynamic resource allocation to meet application or business unit needs • Abstract from hardware and other fixed assets, easy capacity planning • Improve Availability at Lower Cost • Reduce or eliminate downtime for upgrades and updates • Faster Backup/Recovery in case of Hardware and Software Failures • Much easier configuration of clustering or HA deployments • Enable Much Easier Automation and Management • Reduce Time, Simplify and Improve Reliability of Provisioning, Patch Management, Configuration Changes, Backup, Security, Audit and Compliance • Enable Self-Management, Delegation, Usage Accounting and Chargeback's Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Current Partitioning and Virtualisation • Hardware Partitioning • Virtualisation of Hardware • Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) • Hypervisor architecture – how it improves VMM • ParaVirtualisation - what is it on top of Hypervisor • Hardware ParaVirtualisation • Virtualisation of Operating System • Distributed Virtualisation • Application Virtualisation • Other types of Virtualisation, relevant and not Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Hardware Partitioning • Defined • Accomplished on the hardware and chipset level • Control monitor software (BIOS is controlling partitioning) • Enables multiple different OSs to run natively • Examples • Various IBM machines, Sun, HP, Unisys and more • Advantages • Very Strong (too?) isolation , native performance/scalability • Disadvantages • Expensive by nature – special chipsets, high-end hardware • Relatively static, many OSs to manage • In many cases effectively looks somehow like rack of blade servers Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Virtual Hardware Virtual Hardware Virtual Hardware Hardware Virtual Machine Monitors • Defined • Virtualises access to hardware, creates “standard” virtual hardware • There is Host OS and each guest has full standard OS • VMM does switching, virtualises hardware and solves virtualisation problems • Examples • VMware Server, Microsoft Virtual Server, Parallels • Advantages • Good isolation, different OS on the same box, • Broad OS support, good resemblance of separate computer • Disadvantages • Low manageability – effectively almost as many servers/OS • Performance, especially I/O overhead, double caching • Scalability overhead, limited SMP, data locality/coherency optimisations void • Lots of duplication on disk and in memory > low density • Can engineering perform miracles? Exec. Env. #1 Exec. Env. #2 Exec. Env. #3 Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Virtual Machine Monitor Proprietary or Standard OS Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Virtual Hardware Virtual Hardware Virtual Hardware Hardware More on VMM – “Hypervisor” – New OS • Defined • Quicker and more optimised than the simple VMM • No switching in VMM as the Hypervisor runs at higher privilege level • Hypervisor becomes a proprietary OS to manage virtual servers • Examples • VMware ESX, XEN and Parallels • Advantages • Better performance, higher efficiency through “thin”, more security and isolation • Disadvantages • Proprietary main OS to depend on – hardware2 support, security • As performance gets optimised “thin” becomes “thick” • I/O overhead is still significant, caching/locality/coherency issues still exist Main OS Exec. Env. #1 Exec. Env. #2 Exec. Env. #3 Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Virtual Machine Monitor ModifiedDrivers Hypervisor Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Virtual Hardware Virtual Hardware Virtual Hardware Hardware ParaVirtualisation (demystified) • Defined • Recompiles the guess OS to optoimise for Virtual infrastructure • Takes out x86 unsafe instructions • ParaVirtualisation (UML, XEN) simply replaces them in the guest kernel source and -> ParaVirtualisation simply rewrites device drivers and more in Guest and main OS • Second: I/O and memory still not ready to be virtualised • VMware, MSFT, Parallels solve this through smart and complex binary compatible ways – VMware Tools = Drivers for main and host OS • Advantages • Better performance, better efficiency, nicer looking architecture • No need to solve virtualisation problems in VMM anymore • Disadvantages • Recompiled Guest OS potentially behaves differently with applications, especially performance-wise and must be separately optimised and certified • Does not really solve density, manageability, management or scalability problems • Standards war on “paravirtalisation API proposals” Main OS Exec. Env. #1 Exec. Env. #2 Exec. Env. #3 Modified Guest OS Modified Guest OS Modified Guest OS Virtual Machine Monitor Para ModifiedDrivers Hypervisor Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Virtual Hardware Virtual Hardware Virtual Hardware Hardware Hardware Paravirtualisaiton • Defined • Hardware that is “virtual aware” • First: no unsafe instructions • No more of a problem • Note: Still could not be used directly, optimised implementations are needed • Second: I/O and memory are now virtualiseable • F.e. DMA tables could be partitioned • With device vendors support “virtualised” devices could be created to be dedicated to individual VMs with little overhead • Examples • Intel VT and AMD SVM • Advantages • Much easier to develop more even thinner, scalable and better performing VMM (only virtual hardware), as well as hardware protected light-weight Hypervisor so newcomers like Parallels are on the market – no virtualisation problems to solve • XEN can now run Windows • Disadvantage • Disables live migration • Does not eliminate the need for Virtualisation (VMM) or Hypervisor software • Does not solve all of hardware virtualisation problems, only helps I/O • Still double-cache problems exist etc Exec. Env. #1 Exec. Env. #2 Exec. Env. #3 Main OS Standrd Guest OS Standard Guest OS Standard Guest OS Virtual Machine Monitor Hypervisor Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Hardware OS Virtualisation • Defined • Virtualises access to the Operating System • Single, standard OS kernel (drivers and low level OS services) are running on each computer • Each Environment sees its own “virtual OS” instance/objects and behaves as separate computer • Examples • SWsoft Virtuozzo, Sun Solaris Containers/Zones • Advantages • Excellent Manageability, no OS/APP sprawl • Faster management operations • Highest density, full native scalability and performance • Lightweight enough for number of unique scenarios • Disadvantages • Same low level kernel services • No Windows on Linux or Linux on Windows (but multiple distributions are possible) • Engineering has performed miracles!? Exec.Env. #1 Exec.Env. #2 Exec.Env. #3 Exec.Env. #4 Exec.Env. #5 Operating System Virtualisation Host OS Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
What Benefits does OS have • Performance • Most Efficient Form of Virtualisation • management of the OS • Intelligent Partitioning • Intensive Applications like Oracle, Citrix, SQL • Native IO performance • Density • Light container technology • Small Footprint • Performance • Management tools to mass-manage your entire infrastructure • Agility and DR • Create and manage servers/applications in seconds • Provide resources and take them away on the fly. • Move around applications and servers with no interruption to get best possible utilisation • Backup and clone environments, have them running in seconds even after lights-out Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Distributed Virtualisation • Defined • Abstracting resources group of computers and creating something resembling “single image” execution environment across of them • Examples • Initial positioning of Virtual Iron, variety of grid computing vendors • Now several vendors like 3tera which try to combine two approaches for better manageability and flexibility, as well as combine them with clustering • Advantages • Enables single environment to scale more then resources of any single server • Could improve availability and balance resources more equally • Disadvantages • Most of applications need to be specially changed/designed and some could not be • Significantly more complex programming model when rewrite is needed • Difficult and “unusual” to administer • Typically require expensive low-latency connectivity hardware (Infiniband) • Connectivity is improving slower then single box CPU power - with multi-core CPU SMP boxes would distributed virtualisation be broadly needed? Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Application Virtualisation and More • Defined • Virtualises single application environment • Examples • Softricity (Microsoft), Citrix, Altiris • Advantages/Benefits • Enables you to run several versions or instances of the same application on the same hardware • Enables you to run application anywhere without installing or configuring it – install applications on USER, not on the computer • Not really the same category as above • Other “Virtualisation” • Storage and Network Virtualisation • Java, .NET, other and distributed arch. (Google does not need Virtualisation!) • Numerous hardware and API/ABI emulators and simulators • Denali, Disco, ExoKernel, Nemesis, Inferno – research projects (cool names) Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Back to Indirection,? What are the issues • No physical interfaces in Virtual World • Lots of things in physical infrastructure are taken for granted • Virtualisation creates a “too flexible” infrastructure? • Management tools are mandatory How are they Solved? • Lots of underutilised servers • And Operating Systems, and Applications, and Users • Key word - lots • Virtualisation increases utilisation and enables automation • Automation and Integration is needed! • Resource Management is now possible • Hardware is virtualised and uniform • Still Service Level Management needs to be done somehow • Barrier, share, maximum, guarantee, burstable, affinity, plan, Configure, Enforce, Control, Monitor, Account, Report, Balance, complex policies, live migration, fairness, dynamic, real-time Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
How Virtualisation Benefit Desktops? • Enable easy desktop management • Server based desktops accessible from any device (home, work, mobile) • Dramatically easier recovery/restore procedures, enable true remote management, instantaneous provisioning • Improve/unify update management • Share single desktop more safely • Enhance security • Isolate (hardware protect) dangerous applications or uses • Access a different SKU • Run Windows application on Mac, Linux on Windows – more choice for the user, less OS to support for the application vendors • In order to become truly useful must be very easy and must not require any sacrifice • 3d games and many other applications require 100% (+++) performance • Management should not be harder with its implementation Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Virtualisation Effect on the IT Industry • How does it affect vendor revenues • Would this mean less or more infrastructure needed? • Would this mean less or more hardware needed? • Would this mean less or more software licenses needed? • Would this mean less or more IT people needed? • Example: software licensing • Was per physical unit (CPU, socket, user, device) • Now per virtual environment/unit is attempted – is it wrong??? • Complex – migration, dynamic resource reallocations, non-started licenses • OS Virtualisation – single OS is installed, registered, on disk, started and running – just more isolation – why pay more? • New licensing is needed, licensing should not hold up the usage • Virtualisation makes IT more useful • Should mean that IT budgets are be increased, not decreased • Example: 10,000 servers can create 2-5x more VE/VMs Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Could Virtualisation Enable True Outsourcing? • Virtualisation “side effects” • Enables oversell • Make hardware uniform and reusable • Enables fine-grain delegation • Enables full remote management • Decreases costs of achieving measurable high-security • Server consolidation projects create in-house service providers • Single consolidated datacenter • Departments/business units are “customers” • Usage accounting, chargeback's required • With high speed secure external networks • Would this mean outsourced Utility Computing • Of course lots of tools and core features to add Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Summary • Hyped-up space • Filter the virtualisation noise • There are many different and complimentary types and products • Some are not real today and for all there is lots of work to do • Virtualisation is real and will be everywhere • ButlerGroup predict “Virtualisation will increase from 7% of i386 servers to 70%” • Every new idea is a forgotten old idea • Just natural evolution related to increased IT usage and computer power • Much more then just consolidation and cost savings (even embedded/mobile) • At the end it makes IT more efficient and enables outsourcing • Could and would dramatically change IT competitive landscape • Will Virtualisation be part of the Operating Systems and Hardware? • Certainly not all of it and most certainly not for 5-10 years • The presentation is just my opinion Virtualisation: Why and What it is?
Thank you… Any questions? Rob Lovell email@example.com Virtualisation: Why and What it is?