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Headlines - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Headlines. What “sells” the news?. Appealing Headlines. Simplify complex issues Certainties not possibilities Quick and easy solutions. Misconceptions and Fallacies. Claim something will “kill” you Claim something will “cure” you. Breakfast Headlines:. Skip breakfast to lose weight

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What “sells” the news?

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Appealing Headlines

  • Simplify complex issues

  • Certainties not possibilities

  • Quick and easy solutions

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Misconceptions and Fallacies

  • Claim something will “kill” you

  • Claim something will “cure” you

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Breakfast Headlines:

  • Skip breakfast to lose weight

  • Eat breakfast to lose weight

  • Skipping breakfast won’t lower your grades

  • Eating breakfast improves school performance

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“Why was that claim made?”

  • Did someone just make it up?

  • Why do we think something happens?

  • What makes us think one thing leads to something else?

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  • We observe something . . .

  • We notice a potential association . . .

  • We ask: Does _____ cause _____ ?

Observations are the first step in the scientific research process.

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Observational Research

  • Looks at health and disease trends in a population

  • Looks for associations between various aspects of health:“Is heart disease more common in smokers?”

  • Collect data without any treatments or interventions, give surveys, etc.

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Explaining observations . . .

Do you know?

What is the word that means:“a possible explanation” for what was observed?

Hint: It begins with an “H”

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  • Potential explanation

  • Educated guess

How do we know if the explanation is true? How do we test a hypothesis?

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Experimental Research

  • Research question:Do students who eat breakfast do better in first period class than students who skip breakfast?

  • Hypothesis:Eating breakfast will make students more alert and do better on in-class work in first period.

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Is this a good study?

Two friends and I, who usually skip breakfast, will eat breakfast tomorrow and see if it makes a difference.

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Well-designed research

  • Sample size large enough

  • “Subjects” in sample unbiased

  • Length of study long enough

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Is this a good study?

  • Give everyone in the school free breakfast for one week and see if grades on first period assignments improve.

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Well-designed research

  • Experimental and control groups

  • Determine cause and effect

We need an “eat breakfast” group and a “skip breakfast” group.

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Is this a good study?

  • Have students volunteer to be in the “eat breakfast” group or in the “skip breakfast” group.

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Well-designed research

  • Subjects are assigned to groups RANDOMLY

  • Everyone has equal chance to be in any group

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Is this a good study?

  • Students will be randomly assigned to two groups: “eat breakfast” & “skip breakfast”

  • Students receive free breakfast from first period teacher before class (“eat b’fast” group) or after class (“skip b’fast” group)

  • Teacher will track alertness and grades in two groups

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Well-designed research

  • Subjects and data collectorsare “blinded” to which group subjects are in (“double blind”)so they don’t bias results.

    Students told reason for study is only to decide best time to offer free breakfast, not told outcome measures.

    Teachers track data on students without knowing who is in which group by serving breakfast in cafeteria.

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Well-designed research

  • Other variables are controlled and/or measured.What other factors might affect alertness and grades in first period?

(sleep, study habits, diet, activity, etc.)

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Well-designed research

  • One study is followed by more studies.

    What other questions could we ask about breakfast and student performance? Does it matter what is eaten for breakfast?

    Does it matter when?

    How long in the day is there an impact?

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Well-designed research

  • Official recommendations are based onnumerous studies and are made by groups of experts.

Eat breakfast before class to improve school performance.

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This Power Point Slide Show was created by Barbara J. Mayfield, MS, RD as part of “Destination: Wellness,” a Nutrition Education Tool Kit for High School Students.

This project was funded by a 2002 TEAM Nutrition grant from the Department of Agriculture, and administered by the Maryland State Department of Education.