General Guidelines and Principles of Exercise
FitnessThe ability to perform daily tasks vigorously and alertly, with energy left over for enjoying leisure-time activity and meeting emergency demands. It is the ability to endure and withstand stress, to carry on in circumstances where an unfit person could not continue, and is a major basis for good health and well-being.
“Only 22% of adults are sufficiently active to derive the health benefits associated with participation in regular physical activity.” (CDC/ACSM)
Physical Activityrefers to “any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure.”Exerciseis a subclass of physical activity defined as “planned, structured, repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness.”
Warming-up facilitates the transition from rest to exercise, increasing the metabolic rate from resting levels to the requirements needed for exercise.
(Ages 50+ or frail, 12-20 reps may be more appropriate.)
Significant improvement in caloric expenditure
Placing greater demands on the body than what it is accustomed to. Progressive Overload can be in the form of-
Durations can range from 5 - 60 minutes. Most individuals do not receive significantly more benefit by working more than 60 minutes. For some it is diminishing return, leading to overuse injuries.
Shorter durations are often performed multiple times per day.
During the course of detraining, HR increases significantly at given sub-maximal workloads.
Example: 12 days of inactivity was shown to increase HR from 158 to 170 bpm, then to 184 bpm after 84 days detraining.
220 – age = 180 bpm
180 x .60 = 117 bpm
180 x .80 = 144 bpm
180 x .85 = 153 bpm
Intensities within the range of 70% to 85% of HRmax are sufficient to achieve improvements in Cardiorespiratory fitness when combined with appropriate frequency and duration.
When prescribing exercise intensity, a range of intensities is recommended rather than a single intensity.
Rating of Perceived Exertion
walking 3-4 mph = 5 METS
cycling 10 mph = 7 METS
running 8 min/mile = 12.5 METS
(METS x 3.5 x body weight in kg)/ 200 = kcal/min
example: (5 x 3.5 x 80)/ 200 = 7 kcal/min
7 kcal/min x 30 min = 210 kcal
1 lb. of fat = 3,500 kcal
Static stretching is most common and is appropriate and effective for nearly all individuals.