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General Guidelines and Principles of Exercise

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  1. General Guidelines and Principles of Exercise

  2. FitnessThe ability to perform daily tasks vigorously and alertly, with energy left over for enjoying leisure-time activity and meeting emergency demands. It is the ability to endure and withstand stress, to carry on in circumstances where an unfit person could not continue, and is a major basis for good health and well-being.

  3. Leading Causes of Death in U.S. • Coronary Artery Disease • Cancer • Stroke • COPD (chronic bronchitis, emphysema)

  4. Modifiable Risk Factors • Physical Inactivity/ Sedentary Lifestyle • Smoking • High Cholesterol • High Fat Diet • Hypertension • Obesity- ~65% of U.S. pop. is overweight (10-30 lbs. overweight). 39% of which willbe obese (30+ lbs. overweight) by 2008. • Diabetes- Arteriosclerosis accounts for 80% of all diabetic mortality.

  5. “Only 22% of adults are sufficiently active to derive the health benefits associated with participation in regular physical activity.” (CDC/ACSM)

  6. Physical Activityrefers to “any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure.”Exerciseis a subclass of physical activity defined as “planned, structured, repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness.”

  7. Components of Physical Fitness • Cardiorespiratory Endurance- Ability to deliver oxygen & nutrients to tissues and to remove metabolic wastes over sustained periods of time. • Muscular Strength- Ability of a muscle to exert force for a brief period of time. • Muscle Endurance- Ability of a muscle, or group of muscles, to sustain repeated contractions or to continue applying force against a fixed object. • Flexibility- Ability to move joints and use muscles through their full range of motion. • Body Composition- Lean vs. Fat mass.

  8. Exercise Prescription

  9. Warming up Warming-up facilitates the transition from rest to exercise, increasing the metabolic rate from resting levels to the requirements needed for exercise. • Increasing blood flow to the working muscle. • Elevating body temperature. • Stretching postural muscles and increasing connective tissue extensibility. • May reduce the susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury. • Should last 5-10 minutes. Warm-up prior to competition can be significantly longer.

  10. Muscular Fitness Guidelines • Perform a minimum of 8 to 10 separate exercises that train the major muscle groups. Working large to small. • Perform a minimum of 1 set of 8-12 repetitions of each to the point of fatigue. (Ages 50+ or frail, 12-20 reps may be more appropriate.) • Perform these 2-3 days per week. • Exercise through full, pain free range of motion. • Use proper form. Concentric and eccentric in a controlled manner. • Maintain normal breathing pattern.

  11. Adaptations to resistance training • Improvement of muscle mass and muscular fitness • Enhanced peak bone density and slow the decline in bone mass with age. Improved – • Balance • Stability • Coordination • Flexibility • Posture Significant improvement in caloric expenditure

  12. Resistance Training • Progressive Overload: Placing greater demands on the body than what it is accustomed to. Progressive Overload can be in the form of- • Increased load • Increased repetitions • Decrease rest period duration (endurance) • Increase rest period duration (strength)

  13. Aerobic Conditioning Guidelines • 3-5 days per week. • 20-60 minutes per session. • Intensity will vary for many reasons: current fitness level, age, goals, risk factors, etc. • F.I.T. principle- all can be varied.

  14. Aerobic Conditioning Durations can range from 5 - 60 minutes. Most individuals do not receive significantly more benefit by working more than 60 minutes. For some it is diminishing return, leading to overuse injuries. Shorter durations are often performed multiple times per day.

  15. Characteristics of Bone Building Exercise • Faster movements, as opposed to slow, static movements • Exceeds 70% of maximal capacity • Involves some impact, such as stair climbing, walking, jogging • Involves a wide variety of muscle groups and movement direction

  16. Aerobic Detraining During the course of detraining, HR increases significantly at given sub-maximal workloads. Example: 12 days of inactivity was shown to increase HR from 158 to 170 bpm, then to 184 bpm after 84 days detraining.

  17. Calculating Target Heart Rate • Age predicted maximum heart rate: 220 – age = 180 bpm 180 x .60 = 117 bpm 180 x .80 = 144 bpm 180 x .85 = 153 bpm Intensities within the range of 70% to 85% of HRmax are sufficient to achieve improvements in Cardiorespiratory fitness when combined with appropriate frequency and duration. When prescribing exercise intensity, a range of intensities is recommended rather than a single intensity. Talk-Sing method Rating of Perceived Exertion

  18. RPE scale • Instructions for Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) ScaleWhile doing physical activity, we want you to rate your perception of exertion. This feeling should reflect how heavy and strenuous the exercise feels to you, combining all sensations and feelings of physical stress, effort, and fatigue. Do not concern yourself with any one factor such as leg pain or shortness of breath, but try to focus on your total feeling of exertion. • Look at the rating scale below while you are engaging in an activity; it ranges from 6 to 20, where 6 means "no exertion at all" and 20 means "maximal exertion." Choose the number from below that best describes your level of exertion. This will give you a good idea of the intensity level of your activity, and you can use this information to speed up or slow down your movements to reach your desired range. • Try to appraise your feeling of exertion as honestly as possible, without thinking about what the actual physical load is. Your own feeling of effort and exertion is important, not how it compares to other people's. Look at the scales and the expressions and then give a number. • 6  No exertion at all • 7    Extremely light (7.5)8 • 9  Very light • 10 • 11  Light • 12 • 13  Somewhat hard • 14 • 15  Hard (heavy) • 16 • 17  Very hard • 18 • 19  Extremely hard • 20  Maximal exertion • 9 corresponds to "very light" exercise. For a healthy person, it is like walking slowly at his or her own pace for some minutes • 13 on the scale is "somewhat hard" exercise, but it still feels OK to continue. • 17 "very hard" is very strenuous. A healthy person can still go on, but he or she really has to push him- or herself. It feels very heavy, and the person is very tired. • 19 on the scale is an extremely strenuous exercise level. For most people this is the most strenuous exercise they have ever experienced. • Borg RPE scale© Gunnar Borg, 1970, 1985, 1994, 1998

  19. Energy Expenditure Guidelines • Roughly 1500 kcals per week is the threshold level for benefit. • 200 kcals daily or 300-400 kcals 3-5x/week. • 3-6 MET intensity range = 4-7 kcal/min burn. • MET level examples: walking 3-4 mph = 5 METS cycling 10 mph = 7 METS running 8 min/mile = 12.5 METS

  20. Approximating Calorie Cost of Exercise (METS x 3.5 x body weight in kg)/ 200 = kcal/min example: (5 x 3.5 x 80)/ 200 = 7 kcal/min 7 kcal/min x 30 min = 210 kcal 1 lb. of fat = 3,500 kcal

  21. Flexibility Static stretching is most common and is appropriate and effective for nearly all individuals. Static stretching: • slow, controlled and constant • 2-4 repetitions • Minimum of 2-3 days/week, ideally 5-7 days/week. • Stretch to the point of tension or mild discomfort

  22. speedy recovery post exercise or competition • Don’t stop and rest immediately. Cool down can consist of walking or stretching. Depending on intensity cool down could involve continued low intensity exercise for 5-20 minutes. • Nutritious meal. • Fill up your tank- Replace fluids lost during exercise. Drink before, during and after. • Rest/Sleep

  23. Benefits of Exercise • Increased efficiency of heart and lungs • Lower resting heart rate • Lower heart rate for a given workload • Lower cholesterol levels • Reduced blood pressure • Reduce risk of - CAD, diabetes, osteoporosis. • Weight loss/maintenance • Increased energy • Stress reduction • Improved quality of sleep • Improved posture

  24. Making Exercise a Habit • Choose activities you enjoy • Set realistic goals • Program should be tailored to your fitness level • Give yourself a chance to adjust to new routine • Don’t give up if you miss a day • If you miss a workout- make it up • Consider exercising with a friend for motivation

  25. 5 Fitness Program Killers • Failure to clearly identify goals- It’s hard to get there if you don’t know where your going. What do you want from your exercise program? • Lack of proper instruction, direction- Seek professional help and/or do a little reading. • Failure to start slowly- Can be dangerous as well as painful. • Lack of time commitment- Failing to prioritize, making excuses. • Poor eating habits

  26. It is never too late to start an exercise program.