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Electronics Manufacturing Processes Manufacture of Electronics Components Manufacture of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB’s) Assembly of components on PCB’s Electronics Manufacturing Processes Manufacture of Electronics Components Manufacture of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB’s)

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slide1
Electronics Manufacturing Processes

Manufacture of Electronics Components

Manufacture of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB’s)

Assembly of components on PCB’s

slide2
Electronics Manufacturing Processes

Manufacture of Electronics Components

Manufacture of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB’s)

Assembly of components on PCB’s

slide3
Electronics Component Manufacture

Electronics Components

Mechanical and Electro-mechanical:

PCB mounted DIP switches, mains switches, disc drives

Passive Solid State Devices:

Resistors, Capacitors

Active Solid State Devices:

Transistors, Diodes, Thermionic valves, FETs and MOSFETs

slide4
Passive devices: resistors

Carbon Composite Resistor

Slug  leads  mold  bake  seal

- cheap, poor tolerance, rugged

Wire-wound resistor

wind wire  leads  mold  seal

- high power, low resistance, high frequency apps

Film resistor

Film is cut by laser  high precision

- low frequency applications

slide5
Passive devices: capacitors

Tabbed tubular paper capacitor

Tubular ceramic capacitors

Disk-ceramic capacitor

slide6
Active devices: Silicon wafer production

Raw Si:

Quartzite (SiO2) + Carbon (C) + Heat + catalysts  Si + CO2

Pure Si:

Si + HCl  SiCl4 + Hydrogen  Fractional distillation 

SiCl4 + H2 + catalysts  Si + HCl

Pure Monocrystalline Si:

Melt pure Si, Seed crystal drawn out slowly

Typical Single Crystal Ingot sizes:

1-2m long, 8cm / 15cm / 30 cm diameter

 Ingot sliced (Diamond saw)

slide7
Silicon

Dopant: Phosphorus, N-type

Dopant: Aluminum, P-type

Active Devices: Doping pure silicon

Doping processes:

Diffusion (heat wafer in atmosphere with atoms of dopant)

Ion implantation (ions of dopant are accelerated, bombard surface)

Diode (showing doping)

slide8
Active components: Transistors

NPN transistor

MOSFET

Metal-Oxide Silicon

Field Effect Transistor

slide9
Active components: Integrated Circuits

Monolithic IC: Entire circuit made on a single crystal wafer

Hybrid IC: Monolithic IC + other components directly assembled into it

Hybrid micro-circuit film components

slide10
Active components: IC’s..

Depositing films of materials on substrate to make circuits

Thin Film Processes:

Form components on circuits by vacuum evaporation, sputtering, or anodization

Film thickness is ≤ 5 mm

Thick Film Processes (silk-screening)

Print liquid or paste through a screen (mask) onto substrate  firing (baking)

Film thickness is ~ 10 mm

Silk-screening

slide11
vacuum deposition

IC’s: Resistive elements deposition

Subtractive

process

Additive

process

slide12
Diffused Junction Process

- Photolithography is the most

commonly used process

- Photoresists:

positive: more soluble when exposed

negative: less soluble when exposed

- Feature size = f(wavelength)

 small features need low l radiation

- Mask = = Artwork

- Projection:

- Direct: mask scale is 1:1

- Reducing: mask scale is 10:1

slide13
Packaging of components

- Packaging puts the chip (silicon) into a protective case

- Package provides external connections that are spaced conveniently

(at distance, arranged in array) for soldering

Exploded view of TO package

slide14
IC

Chip carrier

Packaging of components

Structure of a Surface mount component

SOIC package

Small Outline IC

Avoiding possible heat damage to IC during soldering:

- Solder a chip carrier to the PCB

- Insert chip into carrier

slide15
[source: www.towajapan.co.jp]

Integrated Circuit (IC) Manufacture

- Slicing the Silicon ingot

- Fabrication of IC’s (Lithography, Sputtering, diffused junction, …)

- Testing each IC on the slice

- Dicing (cutting each chip out with a diamond saw)

- Packaging

slide16
Packaging

- Make leadframe

- Die attachment (chip bonded to leadframe using epoxy)

- Wire bonding (ultrasonic welding)

- Encapsulation (moisture resistant coating)

- Molding (plastic package)

- Marking (chip number, co. name, marked on package [laser, silkscreen])

- DTFS: deflash, trim the leadframe, form the leads, singulate (cut dambars)

- Leadfinishing: electroplating the leads

slide17
Electronics Manufacturing Processes

Manufacture of Electronics Components

Manufacture of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB’s)

Assembly of components on PCB’s

slide18
Typical PCB

copper connections

protective covering

insulated substrate

PCB Manufacture

Types of PCB's

single-side, double-side and multi-layer

Which type to use ?

(a) Circuit complexity

(b) Available space

(c) Cost

slide19
Manufacturing glass reinforced epoxy resin copper-clad boards

Boards are produced in "clean-rooms"

Manufacturing process: hot-pressing

• Place copper sheet on the lower plate

• Place few layers of glass cloth impregnated with epoxy on top

• [IF two-sided PCB's]: Place copper sheet on above

• Press between steel plates in a steam-heated hydraulic press (~7,000,000 Pa)

• Water cooling to 25º C

• Trim to clean out extruded epoxy

• Punch/Drill holes for alignment

• Make circuit on PCB (lithography)

• Drill through holes (for component leads)

slide20
Multi-layer PCBs

• Similar process as single layer, but takes several steps

Schematics and features on

Multi-layer PCB’s

slide21
Electronics Manufacturing Processes

Manufacture of Electronics Components

Manufacture of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB’s)

Assembly of components on PCB’s

slide22
PCB Assembly

- Insert leaded component into holes on PCB

- Solder

- Protective coating

Manual electronics assembly

Automated electronics assembly

slide23
Automated PCB Assembly

Component inputs:

Leaded Component

IC’s, components with no wire leads

slide24
PCB Manufacture

Surface mount chip assembly:

- Silk-screening to apply solder paste on the board

- Automated assembly of components (>30,000 components per hour)

- IR or Wave soldering

slide25
Land

Automatic soldering

Step 1. Application of the solder resist

Cover PCB with solder resist except Lands

Step 2. Flux application

Spray fluxing

Foam fluxing

Ultrasonic Spray fluxing

slide26
Automatic soldering..

Step 3. Solder Application

Dual wave solder bath

slide27
Automatic soldering..

Step 4. Automatic removal of solder bridges: Hot air-jet knives

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