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Manufacturing Processes. BA 339 Mellie Pullman. Process Choice & Layout. Process Types (in order of decreasing volume). Continuous Flow Production Line Batch Job Shop Project. Mixing Together the Process Types . Spindles. ASSEMBLY LINE for putting together final product. Arms and

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manufacturing processes

Manufacturing Processes

BA 339

Mellie Pullman

process types in order of decreasing volume
Process Types(in order of decreasing volume)
  • Continuous Flow
  • Production Line
  • Batch
  • Job Shop
  • Project
mixing together the process types
Mixing Together the Process Types ...

Spindles

ASSEMBLY

LINEfor

putting together

final product

Arms and

Legs

BATCH for

fabricating

parts ...

Seats

product process matrix
Product – Process Matrix

Very Poor Fit

Very Poor Fit

what is customization
What is “Customization”?

An operations-centric view:

“Customization occurs when a customer’s unique requirements directly affect the timing and nature of operations and supply chain activities”

customization models
Customization Models

Definitions:

ETO – engineer to order

MTO – make to order

ATO – assemble-to-order

MTS – make to stock

Upstream: before the customization point, “off-line” activities

Downstream: after the customization point, “on-line” activities

make to stock
Make-to-Stock
  • Planning Issues
    • When, how much, and how to replenish stock at location
  • Success
    • Balancing level of inventory against level of service

Other examples?

assemble to order
Assemble-to-Order
  • Success comes from:
    • Flexible Engineering design
    • Modularity
ato planning issues
ATO Planning Issues
  • Options configurations (Smart Car)
      • 8 different colors
      • 2 different trims
      • 2 different seats
  • Possible combinations?
  • Less finished good inventory & waste than MTS
mto or eto
MTO or ETO
  • Customer Information intensive
  • Usually requires engineer or designer
  • Minimal “unsold” inventory on hand
services
Services . . .
  • Process and “product” are inseparable
  • Marketing and sales often tightly integrated
  • Customer often part of the process
  • Performance metrics can be harder to define
  • Nevertheless:
    • Focus and process choices / trade-offs still apply
degree of customer contact
Low Contact

“off-line”

Can locate for efficiency

Can smooth out the workload

Check clearing, mail sorting

High Contact

“on-line”

Can locate for easy access

Flexibility to respond to customers

Harder to manage

Hospitals, food service

Degree of Customer Contact
service system design matrix
Service-System Design Matrix

Degree of customer/server contact

Low

Medium

High

High

Low

Face-to-face

total

customization

Face-to-face

loose specs

Sales

Opportunity

Production

Efficiency

Face-to-face

tight specs

Phone

Contact

Internet &

on-site

technology

Mail contact

Low

High

classifying services
Classifying Services

“Front Room” versus “Back Room”

Front room – what the customer can see

Managed for flexibility and customer service

Customer lobbies, bank teller, receptionist

Back room – what the customer does not see

Managed for efficiency and

Productivity

Package sorting, car repair, blood test analysis, accounting department

layout decision models
Layout Decision Models
  • Process-layout
    • Usually best for a job shop
    • Distance between steps a measure
  • Product-based layout
    • Usually best for a line operation
    • Cycle time a primary measure