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CS5: Computer Graphics Yann Morvan Computer Science [email protected] Assessment Exam 80% Two projects 2D Graphics 8% 3D Graphics 12% Practicals every two weeks* OpenGL Graphics Techniques Implementation of selected topics What is Computer Graphics ? Computer Graphics

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CS5: Computer Graphics

Yann Morvan

Computer Science

[email protected]

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  • Exam 80%

  • Two projects

    • 2D Graphics 8%

    • 3D Graphics 12%

  • Practicals every two weeks*

    • OpenGL

    • Graphics Techniques

    • Implementation of selected topics

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Computer Graphics

  • “Computer Graphics is concerned with producing images (or animations) using a computer.”






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Modeling And Rendering

© Walt Disney and TSL

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Wireframe Model

Skeletal Model

Muscle Model

© Walt Disney and TSL


Render and Touch up


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Spacewars: first computer graphics game (MIT 1961)

Whirlwind: early graphics using VectorScope (1951)

first CAD system (IBM 1959)

SketchPad: first interactive graphics (1961)

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Early texture-mapped image (Catmull 1974)

First bump-mapped images (Blinn 1978)

First ray traced image (Whitted 1980)

First distributed ray traced image (Cook 1984)

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Westworld (1973)

First production movie to feature computer graphics.

Used in various graphics displays within the Westworld center.

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Tron (1980)

First time computer graphics were used for

live action sequences.

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Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, genesis effect (1983)

The Last Starfighter (15 minutes) (1982)

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Fully computer generated animated features

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Special Effects… in Live Action Cinema

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  • “Traditional” Animated Features…

  • Some examples:

  • Automating Keyframing in many Disney-type animations

  • The flocking behaviour of the wilderbeest in Lion King

  • Non photorealistic rendering: 3D effects in Futurama

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Behind the scenes on Antz Production

Number of frames in the movie


Number of times the movie was rendered during production

15 (approx.)

Number of feet of approved animation produced in a week

107 ft.

Total number of hours of rendering per week

275,000 hrs.

Average size of the frame rendered

6 MB

Total number of Silicon Graphics servers used for rendering


Number of desktop systems used in production


Total Number of processors used for rendering


Average amount of memory per processor

256 MB

Time it would have taken to render this movie on 1 processor

54 yrs., 222 days, 15 mins., 36 secs.

Amount of storage required for the movie

3.2 TB

Amount of frames kept online at any given time

75000 frames

Time to re-film out final cut beginning to end

41.5 days (997 hrs.)

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User Interfaces

CAVE: Immersive and Interactive 3D enironement

B205 Control Console (1960)

3D Studio MAX

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Medicine and Virtual Surgery

The Visible Human project

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History and cultutal heritage

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CG Applications (1)

  • Art, Entertainment, Publishing

    • Movie Production, Animation and Special Effects

    • Computer Games

    • Browsing the web

    • Slide, Book and Magazine Design

    • Multimedia

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CG Applications (2)

  • Computer Graphics and Image Processing

  • Scientific Analysis and Visualization

  • Simulations

  • Computer Aided Design

    • Electrical Circuit Design

    • Architecture

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Related Disciplines











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  • Science

    • Physics: light, color, appearance, behaviour

    • Mathematics: Curves and Surfaces, Geometry and Perspective

  • Engineering

    • Hardware: graphics media and processors, input and output devices

    • Software: graphics libraries, window systems

  • Art, Perception and Esthetics

    • Color, Composition, Lighting, Realism

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Graphics and the Computer Engineer

  • Knowledge of the Interdisciplinary Background to Graphics Related Problems

  • Ability to Implement Computer Solutions based on interdisciplinary techniques in computer systems

  • Knowledge of existing hardware and software frameworks for Computer Graphics applications

  • Optimization! Realism/Fidelity vs Speed

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  • Modelling

  • 2D Graphics

  • 3D Graphics

  • Image Synthesis

    • Ray-tracing, Radiosity

  • Image Processing

  • Animation

    • Key Frame animation

    • Physically Based Simulation

    • Real-time Interactive Animation

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Course Outline (1)

  • Computer Graphics: Problems and Applications

  • Graphics Display Hardware and Input Devices

  • Introduction to Colour Theory

  • Geometric Modelling

  • 2D Co-ordinate Systems and Transformations

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Course Outline (2)

  • 3D Co-ordinate Systems and Transformations

  • Projection and Viewing

  • Hidden Surface Removal

  • Illumination and Shading

  • Animation and Interaction

  • Global Illumination

  • Current Issues in Computer Graphics

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Recommended Texts

  • Computer Graphics – C Version - Hearn, Baker

  • Computer Graphics using Open GL 2/e – F.S. Hill

  • Introduction to Computer Graphics - Foley, Van Dam, Feiner, Hughes, Phillips

  • Interactive Computer Graphics A Top-down approach with OpenGL – Edward Angel

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Useful References

  • OpenGL Programming Guide - M. Woo, J. Neider, and T. Davis

  • OpenGL Reference Manual – OpenGL ARB

  • OpenGL SuperBible – R.S. Wright, Michael Sweet

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Image Synthesis Group

Computer graphics research in Trinity College

Graphics & perception

Virtual Dublin

Characters & Crowds

Image Synthesis

Adaptive Simulation

Virtual Reality