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Bacteria

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  1. Bacteria Section 19–1 This section describes two groups of prokaryotes and explains how they differ. It also explains what factors are used to identify prokaryotes.

  2. Introduction • What are prokaryotes? • They are single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus.

  3. Introduction Is the following sentence true or false? • Prokaryotes are much smaller that most Eukaryote cells. • true

  4. Classifying Prokaryotes • What are the two different groups of prokaryotes? • Eubacteria • Archaebacteria

  5. Classifying Prokaryotes • Which is the larger of the two kingdoms of prokaryotes? • Eubacteria

  6. Classifying Prokaryotes • Where do eubacteria live? • They live almost everywhere—including in water, on land, and on and within the human body .

  7. Classifying Prokaryotes • What protects a prokaryotic cell from injury? • The cell wall protects it.

  8. Classifying Prokaryotes • Circle the letter of what is within the cell wall of a prokaryote. • cell membrane

  9. Classifying Prokaryotes • What is peptidoglycan? • It is a carbohydrate in the cell walls of eubacteria.

  10. Classifying Prokaryotes • Some eubacteria have a second_____outside the cell membrane. • membrane

  11. Classifying Prokaryotes • Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about archaebacteria. • Their membrane lipids are different from those of eubacteria. • They lack peptidoglycan. • They look very similar to eubacteria.

  12. Classifying Prokaryotes • What is significant about the DNA sequences of key archaebacterial genes? • They are more like those of eukaryotes than those of eubacteria.

  13. Classifying Prokaryotes • How are archaebacteria related to eukaryotes? • Scientist reason that archaebacteria may be the ancestors of eukaryotes.

  14. Chapter 19, Bacteria and Viruses • What are methanogens, and where do they live? • They are prokaryotes that produce methane gas. They live in oxygen-free environments, such as thick mud and the digestive tracts of animals.

  15. Identifying Prokaryotes • Complete the illustration of a typical prokaryote by labeling the parts.

  16. Identifying Prokaryotes • What are four characteristics used to identify prokaryotes? • Their shape • The chemical nature of their cell walls • The way they move • The way they obtain energy

  17. Identifying Prokaryotes What are each of the differently shaped prokaryotes called? • The rod-shaped are called bacilli • The spherical-shaped are called cocci • The corkscrew shaped are called spirilla

  18. Identifying Prokaryotes • A method of telling two different types of eubacteria apart by using dyes is called_____. • Gram staining

  19. Identifying Prokaryotes • What colors are Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria under the microscope when treated with gram stain____? • Gram-positive bacteria appear violet, and Gram-negative bacteria appear red.

  20. Identifying Prokaryotes • What are flagella? • They are whiplike structures used for movement.

  21. Identifying Prokaryotes • Is the following sentence true or false? Some prokaryotes do not move at all. • true

  22. Metabolic Diversity Complete the table about prokaryotes classified by the way they obtain energy.

  23. Metabolic Diversity • Members of which group of photoautotrophs contain a bluish pigment and chlorophyll a? • Cyanobacteria

  24. Metabolic Diversity • How do the chemoautotrophs that live near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor obtain energy? • They obtain energy from hydrogen sulfide gas that flows from the vents.

  25. Complete the table about prokaryotes classified by the way they release energy.

  26. Metabolic Diversity • Facultative anaerobes can switch between cellular respiration and____. • fermentation

  27. Growth and Reproduction • What occurs in the process of binary fission? • It is a type of asexual reproduction in which a prokaryote grows to nearly double its size, replicates its DNA, and divides in half, producing two identical “daughter” cells.

  28. Growth and Reproduction What happens during conjugation? • A hollow bridge forms between two cells, and genes move from one cell to the other.

  29. Growth and Reproduction • Is the following sentence true or false? • Most prokaryotes reproduce by conjugation. • false

  30. Bacteria and Viruses • What is an endospore? • It is a type of spore that is formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm.

  31. Importance of Bacteria • How do decomposers help the ecosystem recycle nutrients when a tree dies? • Armies of bacteria attack and digest the dead tissue. The bacteria break down dead matter into simpler materials, which are released into the soil.

  32. Importance of Bacteria • What would happen to plants and animals if decomposers did not recycle nutrients? • Plants would drain the soil of minerals and die, and animals that depend on plants for food would starve.

  33. Importance of Bacteria Why do plants and animals need nitrogen? • They need nitrogen to make amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins.

  34. Importance of Bacteria How does nitrogen fixation help plants? • Plants use the nitrogen to build amino acids.

  35. Importance of Bacteria What kind of relationship do many plants have with nitrogen-fixing bacteria? • They have symbiotic relationships.

  36. Importance of Bacteria • How can bacteria be used to clean up an oil spill? • One type of bacterium can digest petroleum.

  37. Importance of Bacteria • What have biotechnology companies begun to realize about bacteria adapted to extreme environments? ______ • Those bacteria may be a rich source of heat-stable enzymes, which can be used in medicine, food production, and industrial chemistry.