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Abdominal Pain - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Abdominal Pain. Scope of the problem Anatomic Essentials Visceral Pain Parietal Pain Referred Pain. History. Where is your pain? Has it always been there? Does the pain radiate anywhere? How did the pain begin (sudden vs. gradual onset)? How long have you had the pain?

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Presentation Transcript
abdominal pain
Abdominal Pain
  • Scope of the problem
  • Anatomic Essentials
    • Visceral Pain
    • Parietal Pain
    • Referred Pain
history
History
  • Where is your pain? Has it always been there?
  • Does the pain radiate anywhere?
  • How did the pain begin (sudden vs. gradual onset)? How long have you had the pain?
  • What were you doing when the pain began?
  • What does the pain feel like?
  • On a scale of 0–10, how severe is the pain?
  • Does anything make the pain better or worse?
  • Have you had the pain before?
history continued
History (continued)
  • Associated symptoms
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Genitourinary
    • Gynecologic
    • Cardiopulmonary
  • Past medical
physical examination directed
Physical Examination - Directed
  • General appearance
  • Vital Signs
  • Abdomen
    • Inspection
    • Auscultation
    • Percussion
    • Palpation
physical examination directed1
Physical Examination - Directed
  • Pelvic
  • Genital
  • Back
  • Rectal
  • Head-to-toe
differential diagnosis
Appendicitis

Biliary colic, cholecystitis, cholangitis

Bowel obstruction

Diverticulitis

Ectopic pregnancy

Gastroenteritis

Intussuception

Mesenteric Ischemia

Ovarian torsion

Pancreatitis

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Perforated peptic ulcer

Ruptured or leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)

Testicular torsion

Ureteral colic

Volvulus

Differential Diagnosis
diagnostic testing
Diagnostic Testing
  • Laboratory Studies
    • CBC
    • Urinalysis
    • Pregnancy
    • Amylase/Lipase
    • Other
  • Electrocardiogram
diagnostic testing continued
Diagnostic Testing - continued
  • Radiologic Studies
    • Plain Films
    • Ultrasound
    • Computed Tomography
general treatment principles
General Treatment Principles
  • Volume repletion
  • Pain relief
  • Antibiotics
  • Other
special patients
Special Patients
  • Elderly
  • Pediatric
  • Immune compromised
disposition
Disposition
  • Surgical consultation
  • Serial evaluation
  • Discharge
pearls pitfalls and myths
Do not restrict the diagnosis solely by the location of the pain.

Consider appendicitis in all patients with abdominal pain and an appendix, especially in patients with the presumed diagnosis of gastroenteritis, PID or UTI.

Do not use the presence or absence of fever to distinguish between surgical and medical causes of abdominal pain.

The WBC count is of little clinical value in the patient with possible appendicitis.

Any woman with childbearing potential and abdominal pain has an ectopic pregnancy until her pregnancy test comes back negative.

Pain medications reduce pain and suffering without compromising diagnostic accuracy.

An elderly patient with abdominal pain has a high likelihood of surgical disease.

Obtain an ECG in elderly patients and those with cardiac risk factors presenting with abdominal pain.

A patient with appendicitis by history and physical examination does not need a CT scan to confirm the diagnosis; they need an operation.

The use of abdominal ultrasound or CT may help evaluate patients over the age of 50 with unexplained abdominal or flank pain for the presence of AAA.

Pearls, Pitfalls and Myths