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Systematic Theology. An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine By Wayne Grudem. From Previous Chapters. REVIEW. 3 tests have been used (relate to the early church)

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  1. Systematic Theology An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine By Wayne Grudem

  2. From Previous Chapters REVIEW

  3. 3 tests have been used (relate to the early church) a. Authorship – author must have been a apostle – (Shepherd of Hermas, 1st Clement eliminated. Not all 27 authors are apostles – only Christ could appoint _ Mark, Luke, Acts, James, and Jude. Person who was close to an apostle or with gift of apostleship Mark – Peter Luke – Paul James/Jude – brothers of the Lord (became apostles) Anyone not an apostle had the gift of prophecy. But even this is not enough, because no one knows author of Hebrews – one book that earned canonicity by intrinsic value/message. b. Universal Christian acceptance – 1st four centuries this was being settled. Corroborative test. Early church best position to decide – access to records/traditions that we don’t. In and of itself not decisive c. Inspiration/Permanent Value – principle 2 Tim. 3:16 is applied here. What is given by inspiration of God for permanent value (beneficial to all) was Scripture. (From Dr. Robert Thomas, New Testament Introduction, The Master’s Seminary) Tests of canonicity

  4. 3 ways: 1. Intrinsic content a. central subject is the person and work of Jesus Christ gospels his biographical, church – his work/personality, epistles – his theological of his teaching, rev. his future reigning. b. Must be unique – huge number of gospels – don’t measure up in precision of narrative, nor do they measure up in their depth of teaching, or degree of concentration on person of Christ. Ex. Gospel Thomas – Jesus as a boy stetches lumber cut too short, no purpose Joseph knew his diety – magical works characterize apocryphal works c. Its survivability - No natural reason literature about Jesus would survive. Must be something of literature that caused it to survive. Ex. Mohammad writings survived because he conquered the Mediterranean world, but Jesus unknown in his day. 2. Moral and spiritual effect of canonical (Ex. Josh McDowell student of Dr. Thomas effective Thomas thinks because of his personal life). All literature affects human thought to some extent – but no books like NT that have transformed human thought. Every culture – the gospel has shown power to change people. 3. Historical testimony of the Christian Church to the 27 books But since 4th century to present – no significant to change the canon (some could say Scientologist or Mormons have tried – at least supplemented or tried to supplant) Inclusion of Gospel of Thomas will not survive history – not two books words or works of Jesus by Jesus seminar (Harper/Collins). Their theory is that two primary docs of Christianity is Gospel of Thomas and Q (which no one has ever seen). Unfortunately some evangelicals are leaning this way. (From Dr. Robert Thomas, New Testament Introduction, The Master’s Seminary) How is inspiration demonstrated/proven?

  5. 1. Scriptural reasons - Jude 3 (A.D. 72) the faith (body of truth) once for all delivered to the saints. Revelation 22:18-19 Warning of those not to add/take away from prophecy – talking about Rev. itself – but it is a prophecy that spans time of John the Apostle to eternal state – anyone who adds a prophecy to what is found in Revelation is subject to doom/curses. Point is Deut. 4 is repeated about OT canon – announcing termination of gift of prophecy/office of Apostleship – plus words of Jesus. Student: what about two witnesses – Thomas only local not wide spread influence. (See exegetical digest or commentary) 2. Theological reasons – if God has decided to reveal himself completely in the Word then we can be sure that in his providence that he will provide not only for the writing, but the collection, recognition, and preservation of Scripture. 3. The logical reason – the people closest to the itme with best accesss to info determined the NT books to be canonical 4. The Factual reason – no serious attempt to add new books to the NT have been attempted (exception of Trent adding Apocrypha to the OT, book of Mormon, Scientology – Mary Baker Eddy) 5. Experiential reason – by reading there is an inward dynamic of the 27 books – reason to believe the canon is closed. Why we believe the Canon is Closed

  6. How this practically impacts our church Application

  7. Inspired by God (2 Timothy 3:16, 1 Peter 1:20-21) • Inerrant and Infallible (John 10:35, Psalm 19:7 ) • Sufficient for transforming all areas of life (2 Peter 1:3, James 1:21) • Clear to understand and apply (Romans 16:26, Psalm 119:130) • Authoritative for faith and practice (Hebrews 4:12, Titus 1:9) What five things are important to believe about the Bible? (TBC Elder Test)

  8. 1.1 The Plenary, Verbal Inspiration of Scripture AFFIRMATION: We affirm the inspiration of every word of the original autographs of Scripture. DENIAL: We deny the view that only the ideas, not the words of Scripture were inspired. 1.2 The Inerrancy of the Original Autographs AFFIRMATION: We affirm the absolute inerrancy of the original autographs of Scripture, including matters of history and science. We affirm that scientific and historical concepts were expressed using the common language and methods of the time in which the Scriptural writers lived, and that this does not compromise inerrancy. DENIAL: We deny the view, sometimes called "limited inerrancy," which claims that only spiritual concepts in Scripture are inerrant. We also deny the semantic subterfuge of some modern scholars who cloak de facto denials of inerrancy in intentionally ambiguous language, who claim to embrace inerrancy but redefine it in ways which strip it of its historical meaning, and who use numerous synonyms for "error" in their discussion of Biblical texts while claiming they have not abandoned the doctrine of inerrancy. 1.3 The Authority and Supremacy of Scripture AFFIRMATION: We affirm the reformation principle of "sola scriptura," which teaches that because the Bible is the Word of God, it is the final authority on all matters of faith and practice. DENIAL: We deny the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox position that the Bible's authority is dependent upon, derived from, secondary to, or merely equal to the authority of the church or its traditions. 1.4 The Canonization and Preservation of Scripture AFFIRMATION: We affirm that canonization was the process by which the early church collected the 66 Biblical books, recognized their inspiration, and submitted to their authority. We affirm that God providentially guided the process of canonization so that all inspired books were included and no inspired books were excluded. We affirm that God has preserved His Word throughout the process of transmission so that faithful translations into different modern languages are truly God’s Word, accurate, and trustworthy. DENIAL: We deny that it was the early church that decided which books were inspired and which were not, for inspiration was an act of God at the moment of writing, not a decision of later church councils. Inspiration is a fact the church recognizes, not a status the church confers. We deny that any doctrine of Scripture has been corrupted during the process of transmission. We deny both the view that it is impossible for modern translations to faithfully communicate the Word of God, and the view that certain modern language translations were “re-inspired” and/or usurp the original languages of Scripture. Regarding the Nature of Scripture

  9. Chapter 6The Clarity of Scripture Can only Bible scholars understand the Bible rightly?

  10. God speaks in a straightforward/literal way so as to reveal/command/and communicate with his creation so that HE is UNDERSTOOD. • Does God try to deliberately confuse us or be vague so that we don’t understand? • But God does want us to be good students of the Word – to work hard at Biblical exegesis. 2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. THE Clarity/PERSPICUITY OF SCRIPTURE

  11. Psalm 1:1-3 How blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stand in the path of sinners, Nor sit in the seat of scoffers! 2 But his delight is in the law of the LORD, And in His law he meditates day and night. 3 He will be like a tree firmly planted by streams of water, Which yields its fruit in its season And its leaf does not wither; And in whatever he does, he prospers. Spending TIME in the Word brings clarity. How do you spend most of your TIME?

  12. Deuteronomy 6:4-9 4 "Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one! 5 "You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. 6 "These words, which I am commanding you today, shall be on your heart. 7 You shall teach them diligently to your sons and shall talk of them when you sit in your house and when you walk by the way and when you lie down and when you rise up. 8 "You shall bind them as a sign on your hand and they shall be as frontals on your forehead. 9 "You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates. Talking and discussing Scripture brings clarity. What do you TALK about the most with your spouse, children, and friends?

  13. Matthew 9:13, 12:7, 15:3, 21:13, 21:42, 22:29 • John 3:10 The N.T. was written not to church leaders but to entire congregations • 1 Corinthians 1:2, Galatians 1:2, Philippians 1:1 Jesus assumed the clarity/perspicuity of Scripture

  14. “Paul assumes that his hearers will understand what he writes, and he encourages the sharing of his letters with other churches.” • Colossians 4:16, John 20:30-31, 2 Corinthians 1:13, Ephesians 3:14, 1 Timothy 4:13, James 1:1, 22-25, 1 Peter 1:1, 2:2, 2 Peter 1:19, 1 John 5:13 “The New Testament authors show no hesitancy in expecting even the Gentile Christians to be able to read a translation of the Old Testament in their own language and to understand it more rightly (Romans 4:1-25, 15:4, 1 Corinthians 10:1-11, 2 Timothy 3:16-16) Paul assumed the clarity/perspicuity of Scripture

  15. More a moral and spiritual than intellectual ability • 1 Corinthians 2:14 (1:18-3:4) • 2 Corinthians 3:14-16, 4:3-6 • Hebrews 5:14 • James 1:5-6 • 2 Peter 3:5 • Mark 4:11-12 • John 7:17, 8:43 Moral and Spiritual Qualities Needed for right understanding of Scripture

  16. “The New Testament authors affirm that the Bible in itself is written clearly, they also affirm that it will not be understood rightly by those who are unwilling to receive its teachings. Scripture is able to be understood by all unbelievers who will read it sincerely seeking salvation, and by all believers who will read it while seeking God’s help in understanding it. This is because in both cases the Holy Spirit is at work overcoming the effects of sin, which otherwise will make the truth appear to be foolish.” (Grudem, 108) • 1 Corinthians 2:14, 1:18-25 • James 1:5-6, 22-25 Unbelievers that are seeking truth can understand Scripture to a limited degree

  17. “The clarity of Scripture means that the Bible is written in such a way that its teachings are able to be understood by all who will read it seeking God’s help and being willing to follow it.” (Grudem, 108) • ***As they are aided/guided by the Holy Spirit Definition of Clarity/Perspicuity

  18. They don’t have all the facts/data/info (need to wait for further events in the history of redemption) • Lack of faith or hardness of heart • Doctrinal or ethical issues that go against logic, culture, or experience • Unbiblical hermeneutics • No Holy Spirit – Rebellion/Unbelief/Sin that rejects God’s authority and refuse to submit to it. Why do People Misunderstand Scripture?

  19. Beware and avoid making affirmations where Scripture is silent • Beware of inaccurate or incomplete date/study • Beware of personal sin, pride, greed, lack of faith, selfishness, or failure to devote enough time and prayerful to careful study/exegesis of the Word • Beware of a lack of prayer/asking of God for his Wisdom and help in rightly handling the Word of Truth (1 Timothy 3:15) *** “This truth should give great encouragement to all Christians to read their Bibles daily and with great eagerness…Christians must never give up the to scholarly experts the task of interpreting Scripture: they must keep doing it every day for themselves.” (Grudem, 110) Overcoming doctrinal differences

  20. Teach Scripture clearly to others (spiritual gift) • Explore new areas of understanding Scripture (refining and making more precise the church’s understanding of detailed points of interpretation of indiviual verses or matters of doctrine or ethics) • Defend the Bible against false teachers and their false teachings. (Titus 1:9, 2 Timothy 2:7-8, 2:25) “Sometimes those who attach Biblical teachings have specialized training and technical knowledge in historical, linguistic, or philosophical study, and they use that training to mount rather sophisticated attacks against the teaching of Scripture. In such cases, believers with similar specialized skills can use their training to understand an respond to such attacks. Such training is also very useful in responding to the false teachings of cults and sects.” (Grudem, 111) • Supplement the study of Scripture for the benefit of the church (understanding and application). Making “the interpretation more precise and its meaning more VIVID with greater knowledge of the languages and cultures in which the Bible was written.” (Grudem, 111) The Role of Scholars

  21. By Larry D. Pettegrew, Professor of Theology, the Master’s Seminary The perspicuity or clarity of Scripture in its relation to almost all areas of systematic theology is affected by postmodern hermeneutics that fail to respect the authority of Scripture. The doctrine raises a number of questions difficult to answer in a brief span, but two very basic issues are the meaning of the doctrine of perspicuity and the long-range historical context in which the doctrine has arisen. The basic doctrine means that the Bible can be understood by people through the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit and that people need to search the Scripture and judge for themselves what it means. Scripture itself attests its own perspicuity, but not to the point that it cannot be misunderstood or is in every point equally simple and clear. The doctrine does not rule out the need for interpretation, explanation, and exposition of the Bible by qualified leaders. The doctrine does mean that Scripture is clear enough for the simplest person, deep enough for highly qualified readers, clear in its essential matters, obscure in some places to people because of their sinfulness, understandable through ordinary means, understandable by an unsaved person on an external level, understandable in its significance by a saved person through the illumination of the Holy Spirit, and available to every believer whose faith must rest on the Scriptures. Historically, debates about perspicuity have related to Marcion’s attack on the OT, the fathers’ denial of OT perspicuity, covenant theology’s subordination of the OT to the NT, and the medieval church’s attack on biblical perspicuity. The Reformers, the Protestant scholastics, and the German pietists supported the doctrine which is of primary importance for thepractice of contemporary Christians. THE PERSPICUITY OF SCRIPTURE

  22. By Larry D. Pettegrew, Professor of Theology, the Master’s Seminary It is not difficult to define perspicuity even though, as some wag remarked, the term is not very perspicuous anymore. The perspicuity of Scripture means simply “the Bible is a plain book.”1 But the study of the perspicuity, or clarity, of Scripture is complicated by at least three matters. In the first place, almost all of the doctrines of the theological encyclopedia are intertwined with the doctrine of perspicuity. In the doctrine of God, for example, more than an illusion, a fideistic commitment to a religious fallacy. . . .”3 Standing on the philosophical shoulders of Immanuel Kant, these postmodern philosophers insist that clarity of meaning is only to be found in the reader, not in the text itself.4 In the third place, saying that “the Bible is a plain book” raises a number of practical questions. Callahan asks, In what way is Scripture clear? In its language, its translation, its every word, its expression of the authors’ intent, its reference to historical matters, its narration of its story? And what makes one text so easily understood and others so obscure? Isn’t all writing intended to be clear, and all communication meant to be understood? And if so, what is special, if anything, about the Bible’s clarity? And another important question follows: To whom is Scripture clear? To Christians only, to the critically educated, to church authorities like pastors or bishops, or to anyone at all? THE PERSPICUITY OF SCRIPTURE

  23. By Larry D. Pettegrew, Professor of Theology, the Master’s Seminary What does the assertion, “the Bible is a plain book,” mean? In further explanation, Hodge writes, “Protestants hold that the Bible, being addressed to the people, is sufficiently perspicuous to be understood by them, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit; and that they are entitled and bound to search the Scripture, and to judge for themselves what is its true meaning.”6 His son and successor at Princeton Seminary affirmed, “[T]he Scriptures are in such a sense perspicuous that all that is necessary for man to know, in order to his salvation or for his practical guidance in duty, may be learned therefrom, and that they are designed for the personal use and are adapted to the instruction of the unlearned as well as the learned.”7 Even more clearly, Callahan explains, Scripture can be and is read with profit, with appreciation and with transformative results. It is open and transparent to earnest readers; it is intelligible and comprehensible to attentive readers. Scripture itself is coherent and obvious. It is direct and unambiguous as written; what is written is sufficient. Scripture’s concern or focal point is readily presented as the redemptive story of God. It displays a progressively more specific identification of that story, culminating in the gospel of Jesus Christ. All this is to say: Scripture is clear about what it is about.8 Definition of Perspicuity

  24. Scripture is Light - Psalm 119:105, 2 Peter 1:19 • Scripture is Profitable - 2 Timothy 3:16-17 • Scripture explains Salvation - 2 Timothy 3:14-15 • Scripture is addressed to common people not religious experts, so that even children can understand – Deuteronomy 6:4-9, Mark 12:37, 1 Corinthians 1:2, Acts 17:11 Biblical Support for the Clarity of Scripture

  25. 1. All of Scripture is easy to understand or equally clear as to its precise meaning – Matthew 13:36, Mark 4:34, Luke 24:27, John 1:18, Acts 8:31, 17:3, 18:26, 28:23, Hebrews 5:11 • Westminster Confession “All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all.” • The great church father, Chrysostom, compared Scripture to a river: “In one part there are whirlpools; and not in another,” he wrote. He concludes, “Why then art thou bent on drowning thyself in the depths?” – 1 Timothy 1:6, 6:20 (meaningless talk/fruitless discussion, worldly and empty chatter/falsely called “knowledge”) What clarity/perspicuity does NOT mean

  26. 2. The doctrine of the perspicuity of Scripture does not mean that the teaching of Scripture is everywhere equally simple. There is a difference between clarity and simplicity. Scripture is clear, not mystical or hidden. But it often takes work to understand what the biblical authors meant in a certain passage. Commenting on Paul’s writings, the apostle Peter admits, “There are some things in them that are hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures” (2 Peter 3:16). What clarity/perspicuity does NOT mean

  27. 2. The doctrine of the perspicuity of Scripture does not mean that the teaching of Scripture is everywhere equally simple. There is a difference between clarity and simplicity. Scripture is clear, not mystical or hidden. But it often takes work to understand what the biblical authors meant in a certain passage. Commenting on Paul’s writings, the apostle Peter admits, “There are some things in them that are hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures” (2 Peter 3:16). What clarity/perspicuity does NOT mean

  28. 3. Perspicuity does not mean that interpretation, explanation, and exposition by a B ible teacher are never necessary. The New Testament speaks of the gift of teaching and the office of pastor-teacher. Ephesians 4:11-13 And He gave some as apostles, and some as prophets, and some as evangelists, and some as pastors and teachers, 12 for the equipping of the saints for the work of service, to the building up of the body of Christ; 13 until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a mature man, to the measure of the stature which belongs to the fullness of Christ. One of the qualifications of a pastor, in fact, is that he be “able to teach” the Scriptures (1 Tim 3:2). Even the change from one culture to another, and one language to another, mandates teachers. Bernard Rammwrites, “Words and sentences occur in the context of a culture. Their meaning depends in a large part to these contexts in which they occur and without that context it is either difficult or impossible to know the meaning of the words or sentences. It is therefore no great thing nor something out of the ordinary that we should have words, concepts, and sentences that puzzle us in Holy Scripture. What clarity/perspicuity does NOT mean

  29. Scripture is clear enough for the simplest person to live by. Scripturesays, “The unfolding of your words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple” (Psalm 119:130). Wayne Grudem comments, “Here the ‘simple’ person (Heb. peti) is not merely one who lacks intellectual ability, but one who lacks sound judgment, who is prone to making mistakes, and who is easily led astray. God’s Word is so understandable, so clear, that even this kind of person is made wise by it.” Robert Reymondexplains, For example, one does not need to be ‘learned,’ when reading the Gospels or hearing them read or proclaimed, to discover that they intend to teach that Jesus was born of a virgin, lived a sinless life, performed mighty miracles, died on the cross ‘as a ransom for many,’ and rose from the dead on the third day after death. These things are plain, lying on the very face of the Gospels. What Perspicuity Does Mean

  30. 2. On the other hand, perspicuity also means that Scripture is deep enoughfor readers of the highest intellectual ability. Augustine, one of the great minds of the ancient world admitted that certain passages of Scripture seem to be covered with “a most dense mist,” which he believed “was provided by God to conquer pride by work and to combat disdain in our minds, to which those things which are easily discovered seem frequently to become worthless.” What Perspicuity Does Mean

  31. 3. Perspicuity means that Scripture is clear in its essential matters. Scripture, “in any faithful translation, is sufficiently perspicuous (clear) to show us our sinfulness, the basic facts of the gospel, what we must do if we are to be part of the family of G od, and how to live.” The late R. V. Clearwaters, president of Central Baptist Seminary in Minneapolis, when confronted by the old argument that “Scripture is obscure and has many different interpretations,” would read Rom 3:23 to that person: “All have sinned and come short of the glory of God.” “Now,” he would say, “you give me your interpretation of that verse, and I’ll give you mine.” His point was, of course, that it is almost impossible to misinterpret “all have sinned and come short of the glory of God”? This verse and all other essential matters in Scripture are clear. What Perspicuity Does Mean

  32. The obscurity that a readerof the Bible may find in some parts of Scripture is the fault of finite and sinful mankind. Grudem explains, In a day when it is common for people to tell us how hard it is to interpret Scripture rightly, we would do well to remember that not once in the Gospels do we ever hear Jesus saying anything like this: “I see how your problem arose—the Scriptures are not very clear on that subject.” Instead, whether he is speaking to scholars or untrained common people, his responses always assume that the blame for misunderstanding any teaching of Scripture is not to be placed on the Scriptures themselves, but on those who misunderstand or fail to accept what is written. Again and again he answers questions with statements like, “Have you not read . . .” (Matt. 12:3, 5; 19:14; 22:31), “Have you never read in the scriptures . . .” (Matt. 21:42), or even, “You are wrong because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God” (Matt. 22:29; cf. Matt. 9:13; 12:7;15:3; 21:13; John 3:10; et al.). The blame must not be placed on the Scriptures themselves, but upon finite and sinful man. What Perspicuity Does Mean

  33. 5. The interpreters of Scripture must use ordinarymeans. The writing of Scripture, though completed under the superintendence of the Holy Spirit, was accomplished by ordinary men using normal means of grammar and syntax. So, “if an interpreter properly follows what has been called ‘the laws of language,’ or ‘the rights of language,’ he can know what the Scriptures specifically mean.” What Perspicuity Does Mean

  34. 6. Even an unsaved person canunderstand the plain teachings of Scripture on an external level. Some might think of 1 Cor 2:14 that says that the things of the Spirit are foolish to the man without the Spirit, and he cannot understand them. But the point is not that an unsaved person cannot understand what the Scripture is saying or teaching. The point is that he cannot have a spiritual understanding. At best, Scripture is insignificant to him; at worst, it is incredible. In other words, there are two levels of knowing and understanding. At the first level, it is possible to see and hear with the senses—one could even say, to see or hear with the mind—while on the other hand not seeing or hearing with the Spirit of God (Matt 13:13-15). What Perspicuity Does Mean

  35. 7. The Holy Spirit must illumine the mindof the reader or hearer of Scripture if he is to understand the significance ofScripture. This is the correct meaning of 1 Corinthians 2:14. 8. In accordance with thepriesthood of the believer, every Christian has the right and is bound to readand interpret it for himself, so that his “faith may rest on the testimony of theScriptures, and not on that of the Church.” There are no church officers, class of officers, or Bible expositors to whose interpretation of the Scriptures the people are required to submit as a final authority. What Perspicuity Does Mean

  36. 7. The Holy Spirit must illumine the mindof the reader or hearer of Scripture if he is to understand the significance ofScripture. This is the correct meaning of 1 Corinthians 2:14. 8. In accordance with thepriesthood of the believer, every Christian has the right and is bound to readand interpret it for himself, so that his “faith may rest on the testimony of theScriptures, and not on that of the Church.” There are no church officers, class of officers, or Bible expositors to whose interpretation of the Scriptures the people are required to submit as a final authority. What Perspicuity Does Mean

  37. To summarize, “All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all; yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed for Salvation, are so clearly propounded, and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in due use of ordinary means, may attain to a sufficient understanding of them.” What Perspicuity Does Mean

  38. The practical lessons from the doctrine of the perspicuity of Scripture are many. The first is surely thankfulness to the God of grace who clearly reveals in a book how to have one’s sins forgiven, how to have eternal life, and how to live a life pleasing to Him. This doctrine is also one of the important teachings of Scripture for which Jude instructed Christians to “earnestly contend for the faith” (Jude 3). Clarity of Scripture is denied by every false theology, usually putting a priesthood, a cult’s founder, an inner light, a critical methodology, or a postmodern hermeneutic, between the Scriptures and the Christian. Finally, pastors may need to be reminded never to give the impression to their people that they cannot understand the Bible without their sermons. On the contrary, pastors must help their people to learn to love to read and study God’s Word. The Bible is a precious book, able to make people wise unto salvation, profitable for doctrine, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness—and it is clear. Dr. Pettegrew’s CONCLUSION

  39. For what purposes are the Bible necessary? How much can people know about God without the Bible? Next Week Read Chapter 7The Four Characteristics of Scripture: Authority, Clarity, NECESSITY, & Sufficiency