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Introduction to Systematic Theology. LUTHERAN THEOLOGY. Developed in opposition to R.C. Sinner is under the wrath of God Church is institution of salvation Key Lutheran Formulations Formal Principle- Sola Scriptura Material Principle- Sola Fides

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lutheran theology
LUTHERAN THEOLOGY
  • Developed in opposition to R.C.
    • Sinner is under the wrath of God
    • Church is institution of salvation
  • Key Lutheran Formulations
    • Formal Principle- Sola Scriptura
    • Material Principle- Sola Fides
    • Righteousness a gift from God- assurance not based on human merit (imputation/not infusion)
    • Believer is simul iustus et peccator

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

lutheran theology1
LUTHERAN THEOLOGY
  • Key Lutheran Formulations
    • Faith, the instrument of justification
    • Sharp antithesis between faith and works
    • Believer not under the law (undermine justification by grace through faith)
      • Civil use to regulate society- OKAY
      • Elenctic to show one’s sin- OKAY
      • Normative to regulate life of the believer- IXNAY!
    • Law/Gospel dichotomy
    • Two kingdoms
    • Means of Grace- always effect salvation unless there is resistance

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

calvinism
CALVINISM
  • Work of the Holy Spirit prominent
    • Works directly with individuals
    • Works with means- but not always
      • Lutheran- per verbum
      • Calvinism- cum verbo
  • Doctrine of election prominent
    • Related to Total Depravity
    • Election worked out in definite atonement
    • Grace irresistibly applied
    • Summarized in sovereignty of God

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

calvinism1
CALVINISM
  • Justification
    • Agrees with Lutheranism
      • Christ’s righteousness is the ground
      • Faith is the instrument
    • Gospel brings two benefits (dupla gratia)
      • Justification and sanctification, 1 Cor. 1:30
      • Soteriology not exhausted in justification- law has normative value
    • Faith
      • Gift of God- based on God’s regenerating work that leads to repentance
      • Lutherans see this repentance as a work

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

calvinism2
CALVINISM
  • World and Life View
    • Calvinism makes many of the same distinctions as Lutheranism
    • But- not opposed antithetically; rather, viewed as complementary
    • Thus- all of life religious and under the Lordship of Christ
    • Thus- Calvinists are interested in all of life- not just saving souls
    • The Cultural Mandate!

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

arminianism
ARMINIANISM
  • Developed on Reformed soil
  • Jacobus Arminius (pastor of Reformed church in Amsterdam) was student of Beza and colleague of Gomarus (died 1609)
  • Preached on Romans 7
    • Decided this struggle was that of the unregenerate
    • Implication is that the unregenerate is able to believe the gospel

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

arminianism1
ARMINIANISM
  • 1610, Five Articles of Remonstrance
    • Election based on foreseen faith
    • Christ died for every person
    • Humanity depraved, grace necessary for believing
    • Grace of God may be resisted
    • Perseverance uncertain
  • Condemned by Synod of Dordt, 1619
    • TULIP part of Calvinist response

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

arminianism2
ARMINIANISM
  • Evangelical Arminians (Wesleyans)
    • Largely influenced by Pietism
    • Major emphasis on conversion, strong assertion of free will
    • Often distinction between Christ as Savior, Christ as Lord (“carnal Christians”)
    • Key Arminian theologians: Limborch, Episcopius, Curcellaius
    • Key Wesleyan theologians: Watson, Miley, Wiley, Fletcher, Oden

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

baptist theology
BAPTIST THEOLOGY
  • Rooted in Anabaptist (ecclesiology) and Calvinist (soteriology) traditions
  • Church
    • Consists of those regenerated by Spirit and baptized as covenanted community
    • Cf. this to Reformed which identified believers and children as covenant partners
    • Anabaptists scandalized over RC Church and infant baptism

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

baptist theology1
BAPTIST THEOLOGY
  • Hermeneutical Question
    • Continuity versus Discontinuity
    • Does NT contain same covenant promises as OT
    • Does NT warrant discontinuance of OT covenant promises to children
    • Does silence favor continuity or discontinuity?
    • Or, is the NT silent??
    • Does NT supersede OT excepting portions that are reiterated? Or is OT still in effect except those portions clearly fultilled?

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

baptist theology2
BAPTIST THEOLOGY
  • Historic Baptist Confessions
    • London Confession, A.D. 1677
    • Philadelphia Confession, A.D. 1688
    • New Hampshire Confession, A.D. 1833
  • Contemporary Trends
    • Largely Arminian, though some Calvinists
    • Great tension between Fundamentalists/Moderates
    • Many Baptists are Dispensational
    • Key theologians: Gill, Boyce, Strong, Erickson

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

fundamentalism
FUNDAMENTALISM
  • Roots of Name
    • Five Fundamentals in PCUSA General Assemblies, 1910,1916,1923
      • Inerrancy of Scripture
      • Virgin Birth
      • Vicarious, Substitutionary Atonement
      • Bodily Resurrection
      • Miracles
    • The Fundamentals, 12 vols. from 1910-1912

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

fundamentalism1
FUNDAMENTALISM
  • Roots of Name
    • World’s Christian Fundamentals Association (1910)
      • Inspiration and Inerrancy of Scripture
      • Trinity
      • Deity, Virgin Birth
      • Creation, Fall of Man
      • Substitutionary Atonement
      • Bodily Resurrection, Ascension of Christ
      • Regeneration of Believer
      • Personal, Imminent Return of Christ
      • Resurrection to Eternal Life, Death

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

fundamentalism2
FUNDAMENTALISM
  • Theology of Fundamentalism
    • In many denominations/across denominations (cooperation)
    • Move a movement, ideology than theology
    • Emphasis on doctrines of common faith
    • Held to supremacy of Scripture
    • Evangelistic outreach
    • Many new denominations, schools

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

fundamentalism3
FUNDAMENTALISM
  • Negatives of Fundamentalism
    • Reactionary re modernism, liberal theology
    • Reductionist in theology
    • Obscurantist re theology, challenges of science
    • Intellectual responses, precise formulas avoided in order to preserve unity, save souls
    • Anti-intellectual de-emphasis on cultural mandate
    • Embraced Arminianism and Dispensationalism

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

dispensationalism
DISPENSATIONALISM
  • Origins
    • Begins with Plymouth Brethren movement
    • John Nelson Darby, 1800-1882, leading figure
    • Focus on purity of church, literal hermeneutic
    • Peculiar doctrines
      • God has two peoples: Israel and Church
      • God operates through “dispensations” (often, 7)
      • Older dispensationalism said keeping of law necessary for salvation in Old Testament

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

dispensationalism1
DISPENSATIONALISM
  • CHARACTERISTICS
    • Israel/Church
    • Wife of Jehovah/Bride of Christ
    • Law/Grace
    • Kingdom of Heaven/Kingdom of God
    • Two new covenants
    • Rapture/Revelation

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

dispensationalism2
DISPENSATIONALISM
  • Modern Dispensationalism
    • More circumspect- all saved by grace
    • Dominant form of evangelicalism in US
    • Three stages of development
      • Classical Dispensationalism- Darby, Scofield
      • Revised Dispensationalism- New Scofield Bible, Ryrie, Walvoord
      • Progressive Dispensationalism- less use of systematic dualities- Bock, Blaising

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

dispensationalism3
DISPENSATIONALISM
  • Positive Contributions
    • Literal Hermeneutic
    • Teaching on Second Coming/Prophecy
    • Emphasized Bible Study and Evangelism
  • Negative Contributions
    • Israel/Church distinction absolutized
    • Postponed Kingdom problematic
    • Dispensations replace biblical covenants
    • Literal hermeneutic vs. analogy of faith

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

reformed theology
REFORMED THEOLOGY
  • It is a profound apprehension of God’s majesty and realization of creature’s relation to God
  • Objectively: Theism come into its own
  • Subjectively: Religious relations attaining purity
  • Reformed Theology is Covenant Theology
    • Covenant is foundational
    • Covenant balances Immanence (Creator and Creature Relationship) and Transcendence (Creator and Creature Distinction)

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

reformed theology1
REFORMED THEOLOGY
  • Characteristics
    • The sovereignty of God
      • No basis for human experience apart from the decree of God
      • The decree of God is the foundation for human freedom
    • The Creator/creature relationship
      • Based on the sovereignty of God
      • It manifests itself in the form of a covenant between God and his image-bearers
      • Relationship presupposed the distinction between the Creator and creature

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

reformed theology2
REFORMED THEOLOGY
  • Characteristics
    • The Grace of God
      • There are two sides of covenant relationship: Grace and Responsibility or Promise and Obligation
      • We have nothing we have not received
      • Grace expects us to respond (and enables us to respond) in faith, hope, and love
  • Uniqueness
    • Sensitive to story of unfolding of the covenant
    • Story consummated in the New Covenant
    • Reformed theology is innately consistent
    • Centrality of the Word

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

reformed theology3
REFORMED THEOLOGY
  • Relation to other forms of Evangelicalism
    • A difference not of kind, but degree
    • The difference between more perfectly developed species and one less developed
  • Reformed Theology and Irenic Goal
    • Reformed Theology does not needlessly polarize
    • Calvinism is not antithetical to or antagonistic against other kinds of evangelicalism
    • Reformed theology wants to help implicit Calvinists become explicit
    • Irenic Goal can be reached only on basis of a structured appreciation for the covenant

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

reformed theology4
REFORMED THEOLOGY
  • And Lutheranism
    • Lutheranism polarizes; Calvinism views the New Covenant supplanting the Old in fulfillment, not in antithesis
  • And Arminianism
    • Arminianism views election (“fatalism”) as opposed to human responsibility
    • Reformed Theology sees the decrees of God as the basis for meaningful human action
    • Arminians work on a 100% solution; Calvinists on a 200% solution
    • Covenant dynamic says covenant promise is basis of covenant response

Intro to Systematic Theology 7

reformed theology5
REFORMED THEOLOGY
  • And Baptist Theology
    • Baptists want a regenerate church; Reformed churches maintain a regenerate church through discipline and catechetical instruction
  • And Fundamentalist Theology
    • Reformed Theology affirms the “fundamentals” in context of covenant and refuses to ignore any doctrine: whole counsel of God!
  • And Dispensational Theology
    • Reformed Theology sees diversity in the administration of God’s grace, but sees only one Covenant of Grace and sees a unity between the Old Testament people of God and the New Testament people of God.

Intro to Systematic Theology 7