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Quick Write: (Write this in your study guide) . Mustafa Kemal: was a Turkish military commander that was able to fight off the Greeks/British from taking over Turkey. After achieving peace, Kemal became president of the “new Republic of Turkey” in 1923

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Quick write write this in your study guide
Quick Write: (Write this in your study guide)

  • Mustafa Kemal:was a Turkish military commander that was able to fight off the Greeks/British from taking over Turkey.

  • After achieving peace, Kemal became president of the “new Republic of Turkey” in 1923

  • As president he brought in many reforms to help make Turkey a modern nation.

1921 1939


Rape of Nanking

California state standards
California State Standards

  • 10.8.1: Compare the German, Italian and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.

  • 10.8.2: Understand the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic distraction in Europe and the United States prior to the outbreak of WWII

Washington naval conference february 1922
Washington Naval ConferenceFebruary 1922

  • Signed by:

    • Great Britain

    • USA

    • Empire of Japan

    • French Third Republic

    • Kingdom of Italy

  • Limits Naval Operations

    • Size of fleet

    • Location of naval bases

  • Signed by:

    • Great Britain

    • USA

    • Empire of Japan

    • French Third Republic

    • Kingdom of Italy

    • Republic of China

    • Netherlands

    • Portuguese Republic

    • Belgians

  • Regulated submarine activity

  • Regulated use of poison gas during warfare

5 Power Treaty

9 Power Treaty

Kellogg briand pact august 1928
Kellogg Briand Pact August 1928

  • Paris

  • Treaty for the Renunciation of War

    • Say they won’t try to fight anymore

  • Originally between USA and France

  • Ultimately 61+ nations signed the pact

  • An attempt at peace

Rise of italy
Rise of Italy

  • Led by: Benito Mussolini

  • Goals: a “New Roman Empire” of colonial land

  • Conquests:

    • Ethiopia in 1935

    • Albania in 1939

    • After about seven months of warfare, Italy claimed Ethiopia as its colony.

Emperor hirohito
Emperor Hirohito

  • Japan was led by Emperor Hirohito

  • Around this time, many military leaders had a lot of power also

Emperor Hirohito

Motivations fueling japanese industrialization and imperialism
Motivations fueling Japanese industrialization and imperialism:

  • Security Concerns

  • Belief in Asian Leadership Role

  • Provocation by Western Powers

  • Economic Interests

Japanese aggression 1930 1932
Japanese Aggression 1930-1932

Japan wants to become a big empire:

Goals: natural resources, new markets for its goods, and room for population growth


Invades Manchuria, a Chinese province in 1931

China in 1937

Japan out of league of nations
Japan out of League of Nations

  • League of Nations

    • Goals: negotiations, disarmament, improving global quality of life, war prevention

    • Investigates

    • Japan withdraws from League

Chiang kai shek or jiang jieshi
Chiang Kai-shek or Jiang Jieshi

  • Born October 31, 1887

  • 1928

    • Became president of Nationalist Republic of China

    • He feared Communists, but would put aside differences to defend China against outside threats.

    • Turned against Communists

  • 1930-1931

    • Invasion of Manchuria by Japanese

    • Northern China

    • Appeasement– to buy off by concessions usually at the sacrifice of principles

  • 1936

    • Forms a united front against Japanese invasion

  • 1937

    • July: Beijing

    • December: Nanking

  • 1941

    • Allie with United States

Approaching nanking
Approaching Nanking

  • Approaching Nanking, Japanese soldiers commit a series of malicious acts against Chinese civilians

  • Chinese Scorched Earth Campaign

Siege of nanking
Siege of Nanking

  • December 10-12

  • General Tang Sheng-chi orders a retreat of military troops in China

  • Chaos follows

Rape of nanking
Rape of Nanking

Japan invades China

  • From December 1937 to March 1938, Japanese troops massacred an estimated 300,000 Chinese civilians

The rape of nanking 1937 1938
The Rape of Nanking1937-1938

  • Genocidal War

  • Atrocities include:

    • Rape

    • Looting

    • Arson

    • Execution of POW and civilians

Nanking massacre
Nanking Massacre

  • Rape

    • 80,000 women, including infants, children, the elderly and the pregnant

    • Killed brutally

  • Murder

    • 1,000’s of presumed soldiers and civilians are taken

    • Machine gun fire, landmines, fire, beheading, drowning, disemboweled

    • Mass execution “Ten-Thousand Corpse Ditch”

    • Sport

  • Arson

  • Death toll

    • 300,000 – 800,000

    • Unclear because of the secrecy of the event

Brutality of the rape of nanking
Brutality of the Rape of Nanking

  • An article on the "Contest to kill 100 people using a sword" published in the Tokyo NichiNichiShimbun. The headline reads, "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) —Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings"


  • In 1945, members of the Japanese military are put to trial for their crimes against humanity.

  • No members of the royal imperial family are held accountable.

Japan denies the rape
Japan denies the Rape

  • After the events in the 1950’s-1960s there were great efforts on both sides to try and cover up the events.

  • On August 15, 1995, the fiftieth anniversary of the Surrender of Japan, the Japanese prime minister Tomiichi Murayamaapologized for Japanese actions in China

  • Many still deny the events.

  • Relations between the 2 countries is difficult as a result

Japan takes over china in 1937

Japan takes over China in 1937

Rape of Nanking


  • Rape of Nanking

    Ancient whispers among the skyDeclothed were the little childA contest to the very endingLeading to a war of lieMinds they travel the lonely roadBabies hide deep in the soilHeads lying in a straight rowA quarter hiding the unmistakable codeWill the rape never end?Their crying faces bow down to prayWill they ever haunt these grounds?Some things to sacred to mendCan you see the fear we hide?Hidden beneath the revenge we seekOur loved ones thrown to tentsSuffered women stand besideMy people in hundreds begin to fallTo the feet of those who kick the dirtSixteen years they die exposedNanking standing tallWe shall not fight:For we are thirsty for rainGrandfather we will forgiveWe might, we might.

What form of government dominated germany italy and japan in the 1930s
What form of government dominated Germany, Italy, and Japan in the1930s?

  • A representative democracy

  • B military dictatorship

  • C military occupation

  • D monarchy

What was mussolini s main goal in the 1930s
What was Mussolini’s main goal in the 1930s?

  • A a powerful Italian army

  • B a “new Roman Empire”

  • C more natural resources

  • D room for population growth

Which invasion in the late 1930s was followed by the mass murder of civilians
Which invasion in the late 1930swas followed by the mass murder of civilians?

  • A German invasion of the Rhineland

  • B German invasion of Czechoslovakia

  • C Italian invasion of Ethiopia

  • D Japanese invasion of China

Instructions for facebook profile
Instructions for Facebook Profile

  • Read the information page on the leader that you will be writing on.

  • Use the information from that page to fill out your Facebook page on your leader. All the information you need to fill out your Facebook page will be on the information page handout.

    • Under activities:

      • List events that your leader was involved in.

    • The first “post” is where your leaders picture is:

      • Write down a “status update”; say what your leader is up to.

    • The second “post” is that of one of your friends:

      • Use this space to say something that one of your friends would say about the war. (i.e. a war strategy, or goals.)

      • Right underneath you need to write your leaders “comment” to their friends “post”.

  • The last picture will be that of one of your leaders friends:

    • Write down a “post” of what they would be telling your leader during WWII.

  • Under groups:

    • Write down if your leader is from the Axis Powers or Allied Powers

  • Under married to:

    • Write down their spouses (wife’s) name

  • Under friends:

    • Write down the names of your friends. A couple (two) will be listed on the Facebook page already. One you will find in the information page.

  • On the back, create an “ABOUT ME” section that should tell potential “friends” who you are. Include some of the most interesting things about you, what you’ve done, your beliefs, your interests.

  • Remember the information on the page should be FACTS (true). Don’t make up events that did not occur (happen).

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