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ON your own sheet of paper . . . Last name, First Date. TITLE: Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection (five sentences minimum)

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on your own sheet of paper last name first date
ON your own sheet of paper . . .Last name, First Date
  • TITLE: Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
  • (five sentences minimum)
  • In a paragraph discuss how variation, competition, survival, and reproduction within a species can lead to the adaptation of an organism. Why are all four concepts necessary for natural selection to occur over time?
partner pair share
PARTNER PAIR SHARE
  • With at least 1 other classmate compare your lists. (3 min)
  • Everyone must have a partner; everyone should be talking or activelylistening!
partner pair share1
PARTNER PAIR SHARE
  • With at least 1 other classmate compare your lists. (3 min)
  • Everyone must have a partner; everyone should be talking or activelylistening!
  • Were there any items that only one of you listed?
  • Were there any items that each of you referred to by different names?
partner pair share2
PARTNER PAIR SHARE
  • With at least 1 other classmate compare your lists. (3 min)
  • Everyone must have a partner; everyone should be talking or activelylistening!
  • Were there any items that only one of you listed?
  • Were there any items that each of you referred to by different names?
  • Next (with your partner)- determine 3 ways to group your list
essential question who decides what how and why we classify things
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: Who Decides What, How, and Why We Classify Things
  • REVIEW LEARNING TARGETS ON SIDE BOARD
essential question who decides what how and why we classify things1
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: Who Decides What, How, and Why We Classify Things
  • REVIEW LEARNING TARGETS ON SIDE BOARD
  • Where do we organize through classification?
why do we classify things
Why do we classify things?
  • Supermarket aisles
  • Libraries
  • Classes
  • Teams/sports
  • Members of a family
  • Roads
  • Cities
  • Money
what is classification
What is classification?
  • Classification: putting things into orderly groups based on similar characteristics
  • Taxonomy: the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
early classification
Early classification
  • Aristotle grouped everything into

simple groups such as animals or plants

  • He then grouped animals according to if they had blood or didn’t have blood, and if they had live young or laid eggs, and so on…
binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Developed by Carolus Linnaeus
  • Swedish Biologist 1700’s
  • Two-name system
  • Genus and species named using Latin or Greek words
rules used to write scientific names
Rules used to write scientific names

Homo sapiens

  • An organism’s genus is always written first; the organism’s species is always written second
  • The genus is Capitalized; the species is

written in lower case

  • Scientific names of organisms are always italicized or underlined
modern taxonomy
Modern Taxonomy

The Evidence used to classify into taxon groups

  • 1) Embryology
  • 2) Chromosomes / DNA
  • 3) Biochemistry
  • 4) Physiology
  • 5) Evolution
  • 6) Behavior
the modern system of classification has 8 levels
The modern system of classification has 8 levels:
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
helpful way to remember the 8 levels
Helpful way to remember the 8 levels
  • Dumb kids playing catch on freeways get squashed
  • Or…make up your own…
    • D K P C O F G S
levels of classification
Levels of Classification
  • Domain – One World/Earth
  • Kingdom -
  • Phylum -
  • Class -
  • Order -
  • Family -
  • Genus -
  • Species -
using the classification system
Using the Classification System

Field guides help identify organisms.

-they highlight differences between similar organisms (like trees)

Taxonomic Key (Dichotomous Key)

-paired statements that describe the physical characteristics of different organisms

taxonomic key
Taxonomic Key
  • 1a Fruits occur singly ................................................. Go to 3
  • 1b Fruits occur in clusters of two or more ................ Go to 2
  • 2a Fruits are round ................................................... Grapes
  • 2b Fruits are elongate ............................................... Bananas
  • 3a Thick skin that separates easily from flesh .........Oranges
  • 3b Thin skin that adheres to flesh .............................. Go to 4
  • 4a More than one seed per fruit ............................ Apples
  • 4b One seed per fruit ............................................ Go to 5
  • 5a Skin covered with fuzz.................... Peaches
  • 5b Skin smooth, without fuzz........................... Plums

What steps would you use to identify an apple?

slide22

Motivation

  • Begin the lesson by warming students up with a review that will illustrate useful groupings of plants, animals, and non-living objects. Ask students to volunteer objects (such as a pen, a book, a coat) for scientific observation. Then add living objects such as plants or animals to the collection. Line up the objects on a table or in one area of the room. Now ask the students to observe the group. Ask students questions such as:
  • How many different ways can you find to group or pair these elements?
  • Which elements are non-living objects?
  • Which are living organisms?
  • What features determine whether something is alive or not?
  • After the discussion, expand the activity by asking students to choose a living organism from the original group and then group it with two other living organisms in the classroom. Ask students:
  • What features did you use to group the organisms?
  • What might be the purposes of these features?
  • Extensions
  • Have students use this site to observe undersea environments filled with animals, plants, and other diverse life forms. Fabio's Scuba Diver Picture Gallery captures the colorful variety of life hidden beneath the ocean and even includes their scientific names. Students can watch a slide show of many amazing (and rare) creatures they've probably never seen before. Encourage them to group these creatures.
slide23

New SpeciesHave students work in pairs or groups to create new animal species. Invite students to imagine that they have discovered a new species of animal, never before seen. They should draw a picture of their animal, describe its physical and behavioral characteristics, describe its habitat, and make up a name for it that would fit into the system of binomial nomenclature. Encourage students to use their imaginations when creating their new species.

  • What are some examples of everyday words that name groups or classes of things? Think about subjects you study in school such as grammar, math, and social studies. What problems would arise if words such as noun (a word for a class of words) and fraction (a word for a class of numbers) did not exist?
  • How do we use classification to make our everyday lives easier? For example, how would you use classification to do the following: organize your desk, organize your drawers or closet, plan a meal, decide what clothes to take on a trip?
  • Linnaeus�s system of animal classification is based on common physical characteristics. Can you devise a system of animal classification based on some other idea�behavior or habitat, for example? In your new system, what animals would be classed together that are not classed together in Linnaeus�s system
  • We classify people in many ways; for example, by race, religion, physical appearance, ethnic origin, profession, life style, and so on. In which ways can classification of human beings be helpful? In which ways can it be harmful
  • Divide your class into groups and have them devise their own system of classifying everyday objects around the room. Students should use at least four levels of classification, but they may use as many more levels as they find necessary. They should end up with a two-part name for each of several objects in the room. Advise students to use Linnaeus�s system as a model, starting out with one classification level that divides all the objects in the room into two major categories. For example, the two �phyla� could be �natural� (made of natural materials) and �artificial� (made of artificial materials); or �useful� and �decorative.� The two major categories combined should include all objects in the room, and the final �genus� and �species� names should exclude all objects but the one being identified. (Students may use descriptive phrases rather than single words, and, of course, they should not be required to use Greek or Latin terms.)