National Human Resource Development Program in the Philippines Dean Jorge V. Sibal UP Diliman
NHRD Framework & Components (Goals & Issues- Udaya Mohan Devades) • Fundamental education reform • Strengthening of secondary, post-graduate education & company training • Stopping (or managing?) brain drain • Dialogue between researchers from the academe & practitioners • Changing traditional management development system • Strengthening initial training & employment • Strengthening HRD policy in state enterprises (especially in China)
NHRD definition(keywords- Hasler, Thompson & Schuler, 2006)) • Activities & efforts to systematically develop human skills, capabilities & knowledge • Through multilevel learning process by an organization, community & national mission & strategy • Objective is to improve performance (growth of individuals, organizations, communities and nations). Note: Values and attitudes should also be developed.
NHRD Definition & Examples • Traditionally called manpower development • Japan & Korea- examples of countries that have achieved development through its human resources (despite non-availability of natural resources)
NHRD and the Millenium Development Goals (MDG) • UN human development goals with specific and measurable targets to reduce extreme poverty by 2015 • Health • Education • Eco-socio-cultural development • People empowerment MDG NHRD
8 Major Goals of MDG (MDG Report (2008) • Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger • Achieve universal primary education • Promote gender equality and empower women • Reduce child mortality • Improve maternal health • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria & other diseases • Ensure environment sustainability • Develop global partnership for development
Human Development Index (HDI) • National poverty • Literacy • HR & leadership capacity • Income distribution • Education • Health & wellness • Life expectancy • Capacity for political expectancy • & various aspects of labor
Management Development in China (transition- Wang & Wang, 2006) Rural & agricultural Urban & industrialized Rigid/centrally Market-oriented planned State-owned Private & collective allocation system of ownership local enterprises Confusian & Diversity with socialist culture capitalist values Close/self-centered Open to global society community
1. Problems in PH NHRD • Disparities in access to education, formal and non-formal, prevail at all levels; • Low budget allocation on education; • Achievement levels are low; • Drop-out rates in both elementary and secondary schools are highest in rural and less developed communities among poor students; • Muslims and cultural communities and special learners suffer from benign neglect; • Early childhood care and development are limited to the rich and affluent;
2. Problems in PH NHRD • Non-formal education services are inadequate and found mainly in developed communities; • Class interruption and the length of the school year reduce learning and its quality; • Science and technology education is inadequate; • Innovations in education and technology are not adopted in schools; • Values education is lacking and ineffective; • Bilingual education policy affects the quality of learning; • Mismatches between supply and demand for educated and trained manpower;
3. Problems in PH NHRD • Education is irrelevant to individual and social needs; • Teachers are inadequately trained; • Graduate education is mediocre, limited and underdeveloped; • Organizational structure of the educational system is inefficient and ineffective
Constitutional Provisions and Laws on HRD The Philippine Constitution - Art. 11, Sec. 17 … State’s priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports . . . - Art. 14, Sec. 2 … a complete, adequate and integrated system of education … non-formal, informal and indigenous learning systems … skills training for adults, disabled and out-of-school youth; - Art. 14, Sec. 4 … complementary roles of the public and private institutions in the educational system
HRD Structures in the Philippines • K+12 Basic education for 2 years prep and 12 years primary education; • National achievement tests after the 4th and 6th grades and during the 4th year of high school; • Individual tertiary level should administer their respective college entrance examinations; • A national aptitude test for 3rd year high school students to identify their career inclinations; • Equivalency tests for basic education acquired through non-formal education;
Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) under PDP 2011-2016 It involves the following components: • school-based management; • enhanced learning efficiency (like K+12 system); • quality assurance and accountability; and • complementary learning interventions (like alternative learning systems, early childhood education, etc.).
Primary Education and the MDP • While DepEd continues to get the highest budget among line agencies, the country has fallen short in accomplishing the MDGs and Education for All (EFA) targets in enrolment rate and cohort survival rate.
Primary Education and the MDP • The enrolment rate dropped from 85% in late 2000 from a high 97% in 1999-2000. • The cohort survival rate stayed at 70% in 1990s and improved only to 70-75% range in 2000s. • The country recorded 72.2% elementary completion rate in 2009 which is still far from the EFA elementary completion rate targeted at 81% in 2015.
Despite free education at the primary and secondary levels, • drop-out rates remain high at 6.3% and 8.0% respectively caused by poverty, poor health, peace and order problems, and child labor. • National Achievement Test (NAT) results improved from a mean percentage score (MPS) of 58.7 in 2004 to 68.0 in 2009. • However, the NAT MOS in high school declined a little from 46.8 in 2004 to 45.6 in 2009.
Formal Basic Education Performance Indicators, by Sex 2004, 2006, 2008 & 2009- Elementary
Formal Basic Education Performance Indicators, by Sex 2004, 2006, 2008 & 2009- Secondary
Education & Child Labor • The number of working children (5-17 years old) decreased from 2.3 million in 2007 to 2 million in Oct. 2010. • Working children aged 2-9 years likewise decreased from 120,000 to 64,000 during the same period (DOLE 2010).
Classroom Gap- Primary Education • Classroom gap- reduced from 2004 to 2010 with the construction of 76,710 new classrooms. • Classroom shortage remains due to population increase and natural disasters. The classroom shortage in 2011 was estimated at 113,000.
Teacher-Student Ratio • The average teacher-student ratios in 2009-2010 were 1:36 for elementary and 1:38 in high school. • In 2001, barangays with no access to a primary school was 1,617. • In 2008, only 227 barangays have no access to an elementary school.
Secondary Education- Problems & Accomplishments • For high schools, instead of building or expanding existing schools, the Education Service Contracting scheme and the Education Voucher was instituted to enroll poor students in private schools instead. • This scheme managed to enroll 153,694 grantees out of 250,000 targeted beneficiaries from 2004 to 2009.
Complementary learning interventions • The Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Law was implemented in all cities and in 99% of provinces. • The enrolment rate of 4-5 years old in private and public pre-schools improved from 19.23% in 2004 to 24.7% in 2008. • Through the DepEd, pre-school education was provided to 1.4 million children. • Grade 1 pupils became better prepared with ECCD experience whose number increased from 56% in 2004 to 64.6% in 2008.
Complementary learning interventions • Nonschool-based alternative learning system (ALS) of DepEd and other providers has enrolled 631,914 and 418,108 respectively from 2005 to 2009. • About 58 million of 67 million Filipinos aged 10 to 64 years of age (86%) were functionally literate. • Basic literacy is estimated at 95.6%.
Complementary learning interventions • Aside from the educational system, the family, media, NGOs, religious missionaries, rebels and the ALS system have contributed to this effort in increasing literacy among Filipinos
Higher education is- • Deregulated and administered by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). • Most institutions of higher learning are privately owned and driven by market demand. • Recent trends show big private enterprises have been buying into colleges and universities to augment their HRD needs. This, in a way, helped bridge industry directly with the academe.
Higher education is privatized • Businesspeople like Lucio Tan of Tanduay group bought into the University of the East, Henry Sy of SM Investments, National University, Alfonso Yuchengco of RCBC, Mapua Institute of Technology and Malayan University, George Ty of Metrobank group, Manila Doctors College (now Manila Tytana Colleges), Emilio Yap of Manila Hotel, Centro Escolar University, Ramon del Rosario of Phinma group, several regional colleges, etc.
Private sector & NGOs in HRD • Industry and professional associations have contributed to HRD- PMAP, ECOP, Philippine Society for Quality, Philippine Association of Labor-Management Cooperation Professionals (Philamcop), Philippine Employer-Labor Social Partners, Inc. (PELSPI), trade union centers like FFW, TUCP, Partido ng Manggagawa (PM), various corporate foundations, etc.
State colleges and universities • offer courses for developmental purposes such as agriculture, fisheries and oceanography, engineering and other basic and applied sciences. • provide access to poor students for higher learning. • aside from state subsidy which CHED streamlined (student financial program- StuFAPs), there are also privately-funded scholarships and student financial assistance.
Higher education enrolment • increased moderately from 2.4 million in 2004 to 2.62 million in 2009. • Graduates increased from 409,628 to 469,654 during the same period, or an increase by 14.65%.
Education to job mismatch • College education is not a guarantee for finding jobs. • Unemployed college graduates and post graduates number 512,000 in 2008 which increased to 555,000 in July 2010. • Unemployment among college undergraduates during the same period also increased from 574,000 to 614,000 (DOLE 2010).
College drop-outs • Table 1 shows the enrolment data in tertiary level education from 2004-2009. • The 2007 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS) showed that college dropouts especially among the 16 to 24 old reached 65.8%. • The main reason cited was high cost of education since tuition fee adjustment has been deregulated under CHED’s supervision
Table 1- Enrolment in Tertiary Level of Education, by Sex: Academic Years 2004-2009 (Source- CHED, TESDA)
Technical Education & Skills Development Authority • Created in 1994 by RA 7796 or the TESDA Act; • TESDA has 47 provincial offices (out of 63 provinces) and 6 NCR district offices; • It consolidated Government’s efforts and programs in vocational-technical education and skills training in the country; • Its basic task is the formulation of policies, plans and programs in technical education and skills development.
Dual Training System • RA 7686 or the Dual Training System Act of 1994 aims to strengthen manpower education and training in the Philippines; • Dual Training System is an instructional delivery system of technical and vocational education and training and in-school education; • Accredited enterprises and educational institutions provide practical training and theoretical instructions. Other Laws • E-Commerce Law
TESDA & TVET • The technical and vocational education and training (TVET) system administered by the Technical Skills Development Authority (TESDA) under the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) augments the HRD efforts of colleges and universities and enterprises.
TESDA & TVET • Enrolment in TVET courses under TESDA increased from 1.68 million in 2004 to 1.98 million in 2009. • The absorption rate of TVET graduates according to a 2008 Impact Evaluation Study (IES) was 55.1% which was lower than the 2005 data of 64.6%. • The main factors for the said decline were: the global financial crisis and job losses; and skills mismatch and geographical mismatch (NEDA 2011).
TESDA Assessment Program • TESDA implemented a mandatory assessment of TVET graduates in order to assure quality graduates. • Of the 836,131 graduates in 2009, 83.62% or 690,836 workers were certified across all occupations. • This assessment program has contributed to the employability of TVET graduates locally and overseas.
Ladderized Education • A major innovation in the tertiary education system is the institution of ladderized education programs between TVET institutions and colleges and universities through EO 358 in 2005. • These programs include information technology (IT), hotel and restaurant management and tourism (now more popular than Nursing), engineering, health, education, maritime, agriculture, and criminology.
The DOST • The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) has extended its scholarship program in the fields of basic and applied sciences. • In 2009, 4,297 students were qualified nationwide and increased the total number of DOST scholars to 11,428.
Other Government HRD Institutions • Development Academy of the Philippines • Military and Police Educational Institutions • Technology & Livelihood Resource Center • National Computer Center • Other specialized training institutes of line government agencies like the DA, DAR, BSP, etc.
Issues & Challenges- PDP 2011-2015 • limited participation of the industry sector in developing competency standards and curricula; • societal bias against TVET and insufficient social marketing, particularly among basic education students and their parents;
Issues & Challenges- PDP 2011-2015 c) the need to upgrade the quality of higher education programs, including S&T courses, and make them internationally comparable; and d) continuing job-skills mismatches, owing to low quality and relevance of education, training programs, alongside lower absorptive capacity of the economy (NEDA, 2011).
Private Institutions on HRD • Private Educational Institutions under DepEd • Private Universities and Colleges under the CHED • Technical Educational Institutions under the TESDA • Private Training Institutions of Companies like Meralco Foundation, Inc. • Information Technology and E-commerce Council • Philippine Internet Commerce Society • Training Institutes of NGOs, cooperatives, trade union federations, religious congregations, etc.
HRD Among Private, State, and Non-Government Enterprises • Professional practice of HRD is the most effective form of capability-building for knowledge workers; • HRD departments now have several offices and areas of specialization; • HRD is a service staff of staff department which assists the line managers in the performance of HR management and development; • HR Planning and development answers the present and future manpower needs of an organization with appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and skills.
Good HRD Practices at the Firm Level • IBM Philippines, Inc. established joint venture with the Asia Pacific College; • In-house training programs of St. Luke’s Medical Center; • HRD Program of PDI handled by the PDI Employee Services and Development Center; • HR Intranet, seminars and scholarship programs of Nestle Philippines, Inc.; • Regular training programs for knowledge workers both local and abroad of Asian Transmission Corporation; • Generalized and specialized training programs of Mabuhay Vinyl Corporation.