human resource development n.
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Introduction to HRD.

  • Human capital is a precious commodity that plays a vital role within organizations and contributes directly to their success or failure. The most successful organizations are those that motivate, train and monitor their workforce to function as the backbone of their firms. HRD, or human resource development, is a systematic process in which individuals and groups are trained to acquire new competencies to make them more self-reliant and improve their effectiveness in the realization of organizational goals.


HRD means building:

1.Competency in people

2.Commitment in people

3.Culture in the organization

  • HRD means building competencies. The most important HRD function is to build competencies in each and every individual working in an organization. Competencies are to be built and multiplied in roles and individuals.
  • HRD means building commitment in people. Competencies will not make sense without commitment. Think of an organization where all the employees are competent but not willing to put into use their competencies. Hence, competencies without commitment will not contribute towards effectiveness.
  • HRD is all about building a development culture in an organization. HRD ensures that culture-building practices are adopted from time to time to create a learning environment in the organization. It builds such a culture that the built-in culture in turn will build competencies and commitment in the people who work with the organization.

The field of HRD spans several functions across the organization starting with employee recruitment and training, appraisals and payroll and extending to the recreational and motivational aspects of employee development.


  • Human resource development (HRD) is an essential component for growth and economic development. It can occur at both the nationwide level and the firm-wide level. The enhancement of HRD of a country is dependent on the government and national policies, while at the firm or micro level HRD can happen through training and efficient utilization of resources. Resources are efficiently utilized to support HRD when the maximum benefit is created at the lowest possible cost.
    • Economic Development.
    • Increase in Entrepreneurial Activity.
    • Increase in Productivity.
    • Counteracting Social Taboos.
    • Human Rights.
    • Profitability

Functions of HRD:

  • To improve the working life of the company's employees, HRD specialists use a variety of tools and techniques:
  • Assessments and surveys (to determine what gaps exist between the employee's ability to do the work and what the job requires). 
  • Training programs to improve job performance. This training can be offered face-to-face in a traditional classroom setting, or as an online course. It can also be group-based or self-paced. 
  • Analyses of the current business situation and projections for how much "human capital" will be necessary to meet future needs.
  • • Strategic plans for hiring the best workers and dealing with under-productive employees. 
  • • Consultations with upper management and coaching of supervisors.

HRD Instruments.

  • Performance Appraisal:
  • Performances is measured learns of results. Performance appraisal is concern with evaluating the present performance/ output of the employees by linking it with requirements.
  • It indicates the extent to which an employee satisfies ,fulfills his present 

job requirements.

  • It's aimed at identification of competency gaps. It enables the organization to evaluate the present position, strength and weakness of its human resources

(b) Potential Appraisal and Development:

  • Business and people have to be managed proactively potential appraisal means assessment and identification of inherent capabilities i.e. skill, knowledge and abilities possessed by employees.
  • This capability of the employee may not be in use at present. Thus potential development aims at identification and development of the potential of employees to occupy key position in further and accept responsibility.

c) Feed back and counseling:

  • The performance appraisal/evaluation report of employees may be used a feedback information. Management may discuss and evaluate the progress of the subordinate with his immediate superior.
  • This review and discussion may serve various purposes. It may help in assessing the need for counseling to the employee's.
  • Counseling can serve various useful purposes. It may help the seniors, to understand the problems of their subordinates and vice versa.
  • It can help the employees in setting goals and designing an action plan to meet these goals. It can also help the employees to overcome the problems faced by him and make the best utilization of his strengths.

d) Role Analysis:

  • The concept of role is broader than that of a job. A job is an assignment of work .
  • Each job calls for a specific set of duties and responsibilities.
  • A role consists of the total pattern of expected behaviors, interaction and sentiments for an individual possessing an assigned job.
  • Role analysis is a process. It aims at defining the contents of a role in relation to all those with whom the employees have to deal and interact for performing the job.
  • Role analysis is identified as an intervention for the purpose of role clarity and performance appraisal.

e) Career Planning:

  • A career is a sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of his work life.
  • A career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provided continuity, order and meaning in a person's life. ----Edwin.Flippo.

It aims at providing accelerated career growth opportunities for its efficient and capable employees.

  • So, career planning is a systemic process of determination of the career prospects, career development and career growth of an individual employee.
  • It helps to strengthen human resource development system of the organization.

f) Training and Development:

  • Training and development are the human resource development instruments or sub-systems used by every organization.
  • Training is an act of increasing the skill and knowledge of an employee to do a particular job.
  • It aims to increase the efficiency of an employee, for a specific job on the other hand, employee development aims at overall development of the employee.
  • So, most of the organizations believe not only in recruiting the best in the industry but also in developing their competence.

g) Organizational Development:

  • Organization development is a systematic process of managing change.
  • It is a planned effort initiated by top management to improve the organizations health and effectiveness.
  •  It aims to improve the problem solving process in the organization.

OD process includes the following steps:

  • (i) Diagnosis / identification of the problem.
  • ii) Planning strategy to introduce change.
  • iii) Use intervention: OD practitioners, consultant’s changes agents may be consulted.
  • iv) Evaluating implementation of change:


  • Perrin’s Global Workforce Study (2003) uses the definition “employees’ willingness and ability to help their company succeed, largely by providing discretionary effort on a sustainable basis.”
  • According to the study, engagement is affected by many factors which involve both emotional and rational factors relating to work and the overall work experience.
  • Gallup organization defines employee engagement as the involvement with and enthusiasm for work. Gallup as cited by Dernovsek (2008) likens employee engagement to a positive employees’ emotional attachment and employees’ commitment.
  • Robinson et al. (2004) define employee engagement as “a positive attitude held by the employee towards the organization and its value. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. The organization must work to develop and nurture engagement, which requires a two-way relationship between employer and employee.”

Cost of Disengaged Workforce

  • Effect on Work - The disengaged employee tries to evade work, struggles to meet deadlines and is reluctant to accept additional responsibility.
  • Effect on Co-Workers - The negativity of a disengaged employee, demonstrated either through raves and rants or complete withdrawal from participation, affects the team morale. After all who has not heard of the proverb - one bad apple can spoil the whole bunch.
  • Effect on Customers - Every employee, whether an organization likes it or not, becomes its ambassador. And a disengaged employee either by actively de-selling the organization, or by complete apathy towards their work, product, process, organization help create disengaged customers.
  • Effects on Productivity - Disengaged employees seldom push themselves to meet organizational goals let alone contribute to innovative practices at workplace. Since, they do not believe that their work contributes to the organization; they evade completing tasks thereby affecting team productivity.
  • Effect on Company Performance - In the corporate world, time is money and organizations must innovate to stay relevant. A disengaged workforce by virtue of delayed completion of tasks and inability to improvise and innovate cost the company dollars which ultimately affects bottom line.
  • Effect on Personal Life of Employee -

Benefits of an Engaged Workforce

  • An engaged workforce form an emotional connect with the organization that helps them go the Extra Mile to Achieve Individual and Company Success
  • Innovate at Workplace
  • Attract customers and employees
  • Become Evangelists of the company, its product and processes
  • Infuse energy and positivity at workplace.

Prepare and Design: The first step in the process is about discovering the specific requirements of organisationand deciding the priorities. After that a customised design of carrying the whole process can be designed. It is recommended to seek advice of expert management consultant in order to increase the chances of getting it done right at the first attempt.

  • Employee Engagement Survey: Design the questions of the employee engagement survey and deploy it with the help of an appropriate media. It can be either in printed form or set online depending upon the comfort level of the employees and your questionnaire evaluation process.
  • Result Analysis: It is the most important step in the entire process. It is time when reports are to be analysed to find out what exactly motivates employees to perform their best and what actually disengages them and finally compels them to leave the organisation.
  • Action Planning: ‘How to turn the results of the survey in to an action’ is a challenging question that organisations need to deal with the utmost care.
  • Action Follow-up: Action follow up is necessary in order to find out if the action has been taken in the right direction or not and if it is producing the desired results.

The term employee engagement has been defined by various researchers. A commonly agreed upon definition would be physical, psychological or emotional involvement of the employee while at work.

  • Four things are important when we talk about employee engagement; commitment, motivation, loyalty and trust. Their level determines the quality of engagement of an employee. Each one is briefly discussed in the coming paragraphs.
  • Commitment: Commitment means the degree to which individuals associate themselves with the job, the responsibilities and the organisational objectives. Engaged employees are those who are fascinated by their work and committed to face every challenge to attain their goals. They are dependable and highly productive and therefore, are accountable for what they do.
  • Motivation: Up till recently it was believed that the biggest motivation is achievement. The reverse is also true, which means achievement results in more motivation. If employees put in their 100 percent efforts to take their organisation to the next level, this attained status motivates them more than anything. Proper rewards and recognitions can further motivate them to achieve more and more for their organisation. Motivation and achievement go hand in hand and act as the burning fuels for the success of any organisation.
  • Loyalty: Employees who are actively engaged in their work show more loyalty towards the organisation. The best part is that they need less focus and attention of managers to perform their task as they themselves feel accountable for their job responsibilities and results attained. However, it doesn’t take much time for actively engaged employees to turn into disengaged employees if the organisation doesn’t have a well established reward system. Recognition is a basic necessity of individuals to remain steered up towards their job.
  • Trust: High levels of employee engagement can be fostered only when trust prevails in the organisation from both the sides. As they share strong emotional bond with the organisation, the latter should also show trust in their abilities. Employees must be given autonomy to perform their tasks their way. They should not be restricted to a specific rules and regulations and therefore, should be motivated to experiment to perform their task in a different and innovative manner.