Ellen Helsper Digital disconnect Predictors and Solutions for Digital Disengagement
Back and Forth…Back and Forth Rich get richer?
Social Vulnerability/Inclusion • Engagement • Entertainment • Information • Communication • Participation • Creativity
Compound disadvantage Source: OxIS 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
Specific vulnerable groups: Access Inequality Urban: No significant difference Ethnicity: No significant difference at the moment
Choice or exclusion? Choice “Personality” Inevitability (social “pressure”) Acculturation/Socialisation Exclusion Material Wealth Forced choice?
Relativity and contextuality of exclusion Relativity Relative deprivation can be as important if not more so than absolute deprivation. For some key clusters digitally excluded people may suffer from higher levels of disadvantage in the context of their communitythan other with the same levels of ‘objective’ digital exclusion. (National Audit Office report, 2009) Proxy use One third of non-users in the UK rely “..on family or friends to use the Internet on their behalf, which means they belong to networks of people able to do this for them” (Helsper & Godoy, 2011)
Reasons for non-use over time Base: Non and Ex-users of the internet: 2005 N=876; 2007 N=773; 2009 N=612.
Reasons for non-use over time Base: Non-users
Engagement Ladder (Young adults) 250 Topicalities Fact Checking Training Number of Internet users 200 Person to Person Network 150 Finance Egovernment SocialNetwork 100 Diary Travel Entertainment 50 Shopping Civic Participation 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Number of activities that undertakes in total
Lessons learned IPTS
Examples of (research) practice • Case I The socially isolated • Case II NEETs • Case III Ethnic Minorities • Case IV Travellers/Gypsies • Case V Disabled individuals
Case III Ethnic Minorities “I don't think minorities in general go for that...meeting people online. Because I don't think they're that open minded, generally.” (African Caribbean teenager)
Best Practice and Interventions Best practice does not start with IT but …IT can play an important role in engaging people from disadvantaged backgrounds if …inclusion is seen as a process starting from specific social, personal, cultural and economic situation, looking at access, skills, and attitudes and concerned with several types of engagement.
Food for Thought Evaluation of ‘success’ with the most vulnerable in society often requires a normative solution: • What do we consider to be inclusion? • Is it up to the different groups to decide what inclusion means to them?