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US INVOLVEMENT IN WWI PowerPoint Presentation
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US INVOLVEMENT IN WWI

US INVOLVEMENT IN WWI

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US INVOLVEMENT IN WWI

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  1. US INVOLVEMENT IN WWI

  2. Causes of American Involvement • 1. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • 2. British propaganda • 3. Zimmerman Telegraph • 4. Russian Revolution

  3. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • Germany created new submarine called the ”U-Boat” • British blockaded North Sea, so Germany gave a “sink on sight” order to any ship approaching Britain • May 7th, 1915-British passenger liner the “Lusitania” sunk off the coast of Ireland • Killed 128 Americans

  4. The Lusitania

  5. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • Aug. 1915 • The Arabic is sunk by the Germans • 2 Americans are killed

  6. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • March 1916 • The Sussex, an unarmed passenger ship is sunk • America threatens to cut off diplomatic relations • Sussex pledge- no passenger or merchant ships would be sunk without warning

  7. British Propaganda • The British sent news of the war to US newspapers everyday • Full of Propaganda • Led the American public to be sympathetic toward the British

  8. British Propaganda

  9. British Propaganda

  10. British Propaganda

  11. British Propaganda

  12. British Propaganda

  13. Zimmerman Telegram • March 1917-British authorities gave to the US a telegram that was supposedly sent to Mexico from Germany • It had been decoded by the British • It asked Mexico to declare war on the US and they would be supported by Germany

  14. Russian Revolution • March 1917-Russia left WWI due to a Revolution in their own country • Germany now would concentrate totally on the Western Front • Pleas from Great Britain and France to join the war effort

  15. Declaration of War • April 2, 1917-Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany • “The World must be made safe for Democracy” • April 6th-Congress votes and declares war

  16. Mobilization • Europe needed munitions and supplies-immediate action • Encouraged people to eat less meat and bread • Invented Daylight Savings to conserve fuel

  17. Mobilization • Convinced Americans to put savings into “Liberty Bonds” • Increased income tax, business tax, and excise tax

  18. US Propaganda • Made heroes out of soldiers and villains out of the Germans • Attacked and gave new names to anything that sounded German

  19. US Propaganda

  20. US Propaganda

  21. Civil Liberties • Espionage Act of 1917-imprisoned for 20 year if caught inciting a riot or obstructing the draft • Sedition Act of 1918-Prohibited from making disloyal remarks • Schneck v. US (1919)-Restriction of civil liberties is ok if it demonstrates a “clear and present danger” to public safety

  22. Minorities • Women-Entered the workforce in mass, took the jobs of soldiers fighting in Europe • Mexicans-immigrating in mass to get agricultural work in the southwest • African-Americans-400,000 volunteered for the armed services, served in non-combat roles, and in segregated units

  23. Armed Forces • Thousands volunteered • Selective Service Act (1917)-2.8 million drafted by lottery • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) led by General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing

  24. Casualties • 49,000-Combat Deaths • 64,000-Died from Disease • Worldwide Flu Epidemic

  25. Armistice • November 11, 1918 at 11am • “On the 11th day of the 11th month at the 11th hour” • Memorialized-Veterans Day • Germany surrendered their arms, Navy, and occupied territory

  26. Wilson’s Plan • Called the 14 points • Points 1-5-Remove the Causes of War • Freedom of Seas • Prohibit secret treaties • Reduce Arms • Reduce colonies • Self-Determination-each person allowed to move to country of their nationality

  27. Wilson’s Plan • Points 6-13-Boundary Changes • Point 14-League of Nations • Most valued-heart of peace plan • Peace association-solve problems by diplomatic means instead of war

  28. Treaty of Versailles • January 1919-Paris • Big Four • Woodrow Wilson-US • David Lloyd George-Great Britain • Georges Clemenceau-France • Vittorio Orlando-Italy

  29. Wilson

  30. Lloyd George

  31. Clemenceau

  32. Orlando

  33. Treaty of Versailles • Wilson wanted this to be the “war to end all wars” • Others wanted revenge • Months of arguing • Wilson compromised on all of his 14 points except one

  34. Treaty of VersaillesProvisions • 1. Germany was disarmed, stripped of colonies, forced to admit guilt, occupation of Rhineland, and had to pay reparations (war debt) to England and France • 2. Many boundary changes • 3. Established a League of Nations

  35. Boundary Changes

  36. Weakness of Treaty • Central Powers not invited • Russia not invited-took land away • Germany blamed • Led to three wars • WWII • Cold War • Vietnam War

  37. US Ratification • Wilson returns with treaty • Has to get 2/3 vote in Senate • Election of 1918-Majority of Republicans in both houses • Senate-raised objections to treaty especially League of Nations-against the Monroe Doctrine

  38. US Ratification • Opponents divided into two groups • Irreconcilables-would not accept the treaty • Reservationists-Would accept the treaty if reservations placed on League of Nations • Henry Cabot Lodge leader of reservationists

  39. US Ratification • Wilson against any reservations • Tries to rally public support by a speaking tour in the west • Sept. 25th, 1919-collapsed while speaking, returned to Washington and suffered a massive stroke • Never recovered • Many believe his wife was running the country • Led to the 25thAmendment-Presidential handicap

  40. US Rejection of Treaty • Senate voted twice on treaty • Rejected both times • 1921-US signed separate peace treaty with Germany • Never ratified the Treaty of Versailles or joined the League of Nations