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American Involvement in WWI. Part 1: The Homefront. Wartime Economics, and Restrictions of Speech. “He Kept Us Out of War”(but not for long). 1916 Pres. Election: Wilson won on a platform of peace. Wilson’s Wartime America:. Government Control of the Economy:

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part 1 the homefront

Part 1: The Homefront

Wartime Economics, and Restrictions of Speech

he kept us out of war but not for long
“He Kept Us Out of War”(but not for long)

1916 Pres. Election: Wilson won on a platform of peace.

wilson s wartime america
Wilson’s Wartime America:
  • Government Control of the Economy:

>>*gov. increased production of factories & farms*

^(will be on test)

>>1917 Lever Food and Fuel Act (also called the Food and Fuel Control Act)

-It gave Wilson and Congress near total control of economy.

-Food Administration created

-Railroad Administration created

-War Industries Board created

  • Selective Service Act: (created the draft)
  • Espionage and Sedition Act:

-censored media & outlawed anti-war practices/speech

herbert hoover and wartime food supply
Herbert Hoover and Wartime Food Supply
  • US Food Administration – established by Wilson in Aug. 1917
  • Hoover -Food Administration Director (and future Pres.) (R)

-appointed by Wilson, and given power by the Lever Food and Fuel Act to regulate the food supply

  • propaganda campaign slogan: “Food Will Win the War”
  • “Meatless Mondays, and Wheatless Wednesdays”
  • Food Administration Grain Corporation:
  • -primary purpose: to stabilize the price of wheat in the US market, and ensure that the Allied militaries had a steady wheat supply
  • -promoted cornmeal for use by citizens, since it was harder to ship overseas
the wib and the railroad administration
The WIB and The Railroad Administration
  • War Industries Board:

-prioritized the delivery of raw materials to war-related industries first(ex: steel was used to produce guns first, instead of being used to make inner linings for corsets)

  • Railroad Administration:

-during the winter of 1917, harsh blizzard conditions and poor organization between companies caused the US railroads to be badly gridlocked

-in response, the Railroad Administration was created

-it gave the gov. control over the railroads, in order to ensure that war supplies were delivered on time

selective service system draft
Selective Service System (Draft)
  • Selective Service Act of 1917:

>Created the Selective Service System: By August of 1917, all men ages 18 - 45 had to register for possible call to military service.

>“conscientious objectors”: religious pacifists who were exempt from the draft. Examples: Amish, Quakers, etc.

>Millions of Americans registered for the draft, & ~two million American soldiers actually went to Europe during WWI.

Declaration of War video (Wilson, Pershing, draft):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rP_zPq7N4_c

espionage act sedition act
Espionage Act & Sedition Act
  • The Espionage Act of 1917 (page 606):

>meant to help find Central Powers spies, and censor war info

>*censored mail and forms of media (this will be on test)*

>made it illegal to encourage mutiny or obstruct recruitment

>discriminated against people of Central Powers heritage

  • Sedition Act of 1918:
  • >*extension of the Espionage Act*
  • >made it illegal to criticize the war effort
  • >objectors to US involvement in WWI could be put in jail
imprisonment of eugene v debs
Imprisonment of Eugene V. Debs
  • Debs had been on Wilson’s enemy list ever since the 1912 election season. (Debs was the candidate for Socialist Party)

-Debs openly opposed US involvement in WWI, and often criticized Wilson.

  • June 1918, Ohio – he made a speech against the draft and was arrested for sedition.
  • Sentenced to 10 years in prison, butwas pardoned in 1921.
  • Ran for President while in jail in 1920, and got 6% of the vote.
shenck v united states 1918
Shenck v. United States (1918)
  • Charles T. Schenck and Elizabeth Baer were leaders of the Socialist Party in Philadelphia.

>>They mailed pamphlets to US draftees, trying to convince them to oppose the war.

>>They were charged with conspiracy to violate the Espionage Act and Sedition Act,by attempting to cause mutiny in the army, and obstructing recruitment.

(Schenck)

  • Supreme Court Case:
  • >>his defense argued that he had protection of speech under the 1st Amendment.
  • >>The Supreme Court voted 9-0 against him, claiming that speech during “wartime” was subject to different standards.
  • >>Schenck got 6 months in Jail, and Baer got 3 months in jail.
slide12

War bonds:

  • are debt securities issued by a government for citizen purchase, in order to finance military operations and other expenses in times of war.
  • >>the buyer of the bond would be paid-back with a greater amount after the war was over.
  • Liberty Bonds – were the US version, created during WWI
slide13

US propaganda:

  • “Destroy this Mad Brute”
  • -page 607
the 1918 influenza pandemic
The 1918 Influenza Pandemic
  • Called the “Spanish Flu”, because the first majorly-publicized outbreak was in Spain.

-King Alfonso XIII of Spain nearly died from it

-it can actually be traced back to Fort Riley and Fort Funston in Kansas, which were army training camps

-US troops helped spread the disease to Europe

  • It killed millions of people worldwide, and about 500,000 Americans (citizens and soldiers) died from it.

-the Flu killed more American soldiers than enemy weapons did, and weakened US forces at Argonne.

*it killed more people worldwide in total, than died in WWI*

rockefeller university and richard shope
Rockefeller University and Richard Shope
  • Rockefeller (Medical) University in New York City:

-founded in 1901 by oil man John D. Rockefeller as a charity

-Germany had the best medical science, and America was pretty far behind, but the Rockefeller University helped improve the nation’s medical standards.

-during the 1918 flu, Rockefeller U. doctors worked hard to research the flu – gaining helpful knowledge for the future

  • Richard Shope:
  • >>doctor at Rockefeller University
  • >>In 1931, he discovered that the flu was caused by a virus, and worked with British scientists to discover that it was the same disease as 1918 flu.
rockefeller university today image
Rockefeller University Today (Image)
  • flu clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qx748gLo_Ks
the aef american expeditionary force
The AEF (American Expeditionary Force)
  • -were the United States armed forces sent to Europe in WWI. served: May, 1917-1919.
  • “doughboys” – nickname for American ground troops; it came from the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), when US soldiers were covered in dust from marching through northern Mexico.
  • >>By 1918, the AEF consisted of a little over 1 million men. (due to draft)
  • >>Over 50,000 would die during the war (1/4th of them).
general john j black j ack pershing
General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing
  • Pershing’s history of service:

-graduated from West Point

-fought in (US) Indian Wars

-fought in battle of San Juan Hill

-fought against Filipino rebels

-killed many of Pancho Villa’s bandits in Mexico

  • Leader of the AEF:

-enforced strict training for US troops

-insisted that the US troops fight as their own group, instead of being used as replacements for French and Brits

field marshall ferdinand foch
Field Marshall Ferdinand Foch
  • Frenchgeneral
  • “Supreme Commander of the Allied Armies”
  • General Pershing technically worked for him.

Foch (left)

-with-

Pershing (right)

us forces halt g erman advance on paris
US Forces Halt German Advance on Paris
  • German 1918 Spring Offensive:

>>Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918: The new communist government (Bolsheviks) in Russia signed a peace treaty with the German Empire.

>>With peace on the Eastern Front, and unrestricted U-boats attacking Allied supply ships, the Germans regained power on the Western Front.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTK0gywjGUY (video about German leaders launching Spring Offensive)

>>In March of 1918, the Germans broke through the Western Front lines, and were about to reach Paris.

US Forces Arrive To Help:

>>The Germans didn’t expect General Pershing and the AEF troops, who showed-up in time to help defend Paris.

>>Spring/Summer US-Involved Battles in Northern France:

-(battles of) Cantigny, Belleau Wood, and Chateau-Thierry

-page 612 (war map)

battle of st mihiel
Battle of St. Mihiel
  • Battle of St. Mihiel(September 12th-16th, 1918)

>>(US victory) Fought several miles southeast of the Argonne Forest, it reduced the German “salient” (bulge in the lines), and weakened German defense in the Meuse-Argonne region.

(northeastern France)

US forces:

>>550,000 AEF troops led by General Pershing.

French forces:

>>48,000 French Army troops also under the command of Pershing.

battle of the argonne forest
Battle of the Argonne Forest
  • (26 September – 11 November 1918) Challenges:

>very steep hilly terrain, and dense forest

>Germany had fortified it heavily: many miles of barbed wire, concrete walls, pit traps, and machine gun nests.

  • US forces:

>General Pershing and the AEF: in all, total of 1.2 million US soldiers, and 40,000 US artillery cannons fought in Argonne.

>ManyUS soldiers were killed, but the US was able to break through the German lines. It is seen as one of the turning points of the Great War.

*Total US deaths in WWI: ~117,000 (more than half by flu)

  • US military action in WWI: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3a3bqhgTCIg
alvin c york
Alvin C. York
  • Conscientious Objector:

-deeply Christian, he opposed the idea of killing

-drafted at age 29, and decided to fight anyway

  • Heroismat the Battle of Argonne Forest:

-killed 25 German soldiers

-took 132 Germans as prisoners

-was awarded the Medal of Honor

-2006 forensics proved his story true

  • Movie - “Sargent York”:

-movie about his military career

-used as propaganda during WWII

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KftgevurO7s

armistice day
Armistice Day
  • armistice – an agreement to a cease-fire.
  • Armistice of the Great War: Signed between the Allies and Central Powers in Compiègne, France.

-took effect on November 11th, 1918, at 11am.

-11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month

*”all was quiet on the Western Front”*

  • In the US, it is celebrated as Veteran’s Day, which honors all veterans living or dead.
  • Other nations celebrate it as some type of holiday for honoring dead soldiers.
  • -US Memorial Day: in late May (it changes)
wilson s 14 points policy and document
Wilson’s 14 Points (Policy and Document)
  • Wilson expanded the US aims of the war from just defending “freedom of the seas” to a higher goal of “making the world safe for democracy”.
  • Main Ideas of the 14 Points (US War Goals):

>>no more secret diplomacy between nations

>>freedom of the seas, except in territorial waters

>>removal of trade barriers between nations

>>creation of (what was to be) The League of Nations

>>independence for various European ethnic groups

-Polish, Czech-Slovak, Balkans region, etc.

-idea of SELF DETERMINATION

the treaty of versailles 1919
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • Signed on June 28th, 1919, in Versailles, France. -page 615
  • “Big 4” author nations of the Versailles Treaty:

-the US, Great Britain, France, and Italy

-*Russia was left-out because it was ruled by communists.*

  • Conditions of the Treaty (for Austria and The Ottomans):

>Austro-Hungarian Empire broken-up into smaller nations.

-Czechoslovakia formed

-Yugoslavia formed

>Ottoman Empire broken-up:

-Turkey formed

(Modern-day Turkey map)

treaty of versailles cont
Treaty of Versailles (cont.)
  • Conditions of the Treaty (for Germany):

>Germany lost territory in France and in the east:

-Alsace-Lorraine territory returned to France

-Poland formed

-page 617: territory lost map

>War Guilt Clause: caused Germany to have sole responsibility for the war, lose its navy, greatly reduce its land army, and Germany had to pay billions in reparations.

-Wilhelm II overthrown, German Republic formed

  • WWI Aftermath summary video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJ-T--Z4oEc
league of nations
League of Nations
  • *Created by the Treaty of Versailles*, with the urging of Wilson and his administration. -Pg. 616
  • The League was and organization of (Mostly European) nations formed in order to:

-defend each-other against aggressors

-prevent future wars, by using diplomacy and negotiation

-it was the precursor to the United Nations today

-League of Nations video (show after next slide):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TdHA5uT9ocg

lodge r vs wilson d over the league
Lodge(R) vs. Wilson(D) over The League
  • Wilson argued that the US joining the League of Nations would help prevent future wars.
  • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, and other Republicans in Congress argued that it would drag the US into unnecessary commitments, and limit America’s ability to act independently.
  • In the end, the US:
  • -rejected the Treaty of Versailles
  • -refused to join the League of Nations
  • -became more isolationist
wwi leads to future conflicts
WWI Leads to Future Conflicts?
  • Italy was angered by the refusal of the others to give it former Austrian territory.
  • Japan was angered by the lack of protection for non-white nations in the Treaty.
  • The Treaty of Versailles is said to have led to the rise of more nationalism, and a desire for revenge in Germany.

(show last)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKzZ1OwPXgk