American Involvement in WWI. Part 1: The Homefront. Wartime Economics, and Restrictions of Speech. “He Kept Us Out of War”(but not for long). 1916 Pres. Election: Wilson won on a platform of peace. Wilson’s Wartime America:. Government Control of the Economy:
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Wartime Economics, and Restrictions of Speech
1916 Pres. Election: Wilson won on a platform of peace.
>>*gov. increased production of factories & farms*
^(will be on test)
>>1917 Lever Food and Fuel Act (also called the Food and Fuel Control Act)
-It gave Wilson and Congress near total control of economy.
-Food Administration created
-Railroad Administration created
-War Industries Board created
-censored media & outlawed anti-war practices/speech
-appointed by Wilson, and given power by the Lever Food and Fuel Act to regulate the food supply
-prioritized the delivery of raw materials to war-related industries first(ex: steel was used to produce guns first, instead of being used to make inner linings for corsets)
-during the winter of 1917, harsh blizzard conditions and poor organization between companies caused the US railroads to be badly gridlocked
-in response, the Railroad Administration was created
-it gave the gov. control over the railroads, in order to ensure that war supplies were delivered on time
>Created the Selective Service System: By August of 1917, all men ages 18 - 45 had to register for possible call to military service.
>“conscientious objectors”: religious pacifists who were exempt from the draft. Examples: Amish, Quakers, etc.
>Millions of Americans registered for the draft, & ~two million American soldiers actually went to Europe during WWI.
Declaration of War video (Wilson, Pershing, draft):
>meant to help find Central Powers spies, and censor war info
>*censored mail and forms of media (this will be on test)*
>made it illegal to encourage mutiny or obstruct recruitment
>discriminated against people of Central Powers heritage
-Debs openly opposed US involvement in WWI, and often criticized Wilson.
>>They mailed pamphlets to US draftees, trying to convince them to oppose the war.
>>They were charged with conspiracy to violate the Espionage Act and Sedition Act,by attempting to cause mutiny in the army, and obstructing recruitment.
-King Alfonso XIII of Spain nearly died from it
-it can actually be traced back to Fort Riley and Fort Funston in Kansas, which were army training camps
-US troops helped spread the disease to Europe
-the Flu killed more American soldiers than enemy weapons did, and weakened US forces at Argonne.
*it killed more people worldwide in total, than died in WWI*
-founded in 1901 by oil man John D. Rockefeller as a charity
-Germany had the best medical science, and America was pretty far behind, but the Rockefeller University helped improve the nation’s medical standards.
-during the 1918 flu, Rockefeller U. doctors worked hard to research the flu – gaining helpful knowledge for the future
-graduated from West Point
-fought in (US) Indian Wars
-fought in battle of San Juan Hill
-fought against Filipino rebels
-killed many of Pancho Villa’s bandits in Mexico
-enforced strict training for US troops
-insisted that the US troops fight as their own group, instead of being used as replacements for French and Brits
>>Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918: The new communist government (Bolsheviks) in Russia signed a peace treaty with the German Empire.
>>With peace on the Eastern Front, and unrestricted U-boats attacking Allied supply ships, the Germans regained power on the Western Front.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTK0gywjGUY (video about German leaders launching Spring Offensive)
>>In March of 1918, the Germans broke through the Western Front lines, and were about to reach Paris.
US Forces Arrive To Help:
>>The Germans didn’t expect General Pershing and the AEF troops, who showed-up in time to help defend Paris.
>>Spring/Summer US-Involved Battles in Northern France:
-(battles of) Cantigny, Belleau Wood, and Chateau-Thierry
-page 612 (war map)
>>(US victory) Fought several miles southeast of the Argonne Forest, it reduced the German “salient” (bulge in the lines), and weakened German defense in the Meuse-Argonne region.
>>550,000 AEF troops led by General Pershing.
>>48,000 French Army troops also under the command of Pershing.
>very steep hilly terrain, and dense forest
>Germany had fortified it heavily: many miles of barbed wire, concrete walls, pit traps, and machine gun nests.
>General Pershing and the AEF: in all, total of 1.2 million US soldiers, and 40,000 US artillery cannons fought in Argonne.
>ManyUS soldiers were killed, but the US was able to break through the German lines. It is seen as one of the turning points of the Great War.
*Total US deaths in WWI: ~117,000 (more than half by flu)
-deeply Christian, he opposed the idea of killing
-drafted at age 29, and decided to fight anyway
-killed 25 German soldiers
-took 132 Germans as prisoners
-was awarded the Medal of Honor
-2006 forensics proved his story true
-movie about his military career
-used as propaganda during WWII
-took effect on November 11th, 1918, at 11am.
-11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month
*”all was quiet on the Western Front”*
>>no more secret diplomacy between nations
>>freedom of the seas, except in territorial waters
>>removal of trade barriers between nations
>>creation of (what was to be) The League of Nations
>>independence for various European ethnic groups
-Polish, Czech-Slovak, Balkans region, etc.
-idea of SELF DETERMINATION
-the US, Great Britain, France, and Italy
-*Russia was left-out because it was ruled by communists.*
>Austro-Hungarian Empire broken-up into smaller nations.
>Ottoman Empire broken-up:
(Modern-day Turkey map)
>Germany lost territory in France and in the east:
-Alsace-Lorraine territory returned to France
-page 617: territory lost map
>War Guilt Clause: caused Germany to have sole responsibility for the war, lose its navy, greatly reduce its land army, and Germany had to pay billions in reparations.
-Wilhelm II overthrown, German Republic formed
-defend each-other against aggressors
-prevent future wars, by using diplomacy and negotiation
-it was the precursor to the United Nations today
-League of Nations video (show after next slide):