Part 1: The Homefront Wartime Economics, and Restrictions of Speech
“He Kept Us Out of War”(but not for long) 1916 Pres. Election: Wilson won on a platform of peace.
Wilson’s Wartime America: • Government Control of the Economy: >>*gov. increased production of factories & farms* ^(will be on test) >>1917 Lever Food and Fuel Act (also called the Food and Fuel Control Act) -It gave Wilson and Congress near total control of economy. -Food Administration created -Railroad Administration created -War Industries Board created • Selective Service Act: (created the draft) • Espionage and Sedition Act: -censored media & outlawed anti-war practices/speech
Herbert Hoover and Wartime Food Supply • US Food Administration – established by Wilson in Aug. 1917 • Hoover -Food Administration Director (and future Pres.) (R) -appointed by Wilson, and given power by the Lever Food and Fuel Act to regulate the food supply • propaganda campaign slogan: “Food Will Win the War” • “Meatless Mondays, and Wheatless Wednesdays” • Food Administration Grain Corporation: • -primary purpose: to stabilize the price of wheat in the US market, and ensure that the Allied militaries had a steady wheat supply • -promoted cornmeal for use by citizens, since it was harder to ship overseas
The WIB and The Railroad Administration • War Industries Board: -prioritized the delivery of raw materials to war-related industries first(ex: steel was used to produce guns first, instead of being used to make inner linings for corsets) • Railroad Administration: -during the winter of 1917, harsh blizzard conditions and poor organization between companies caused the US railroads to be badly gridlocked -in response, the Railroad Administration was created -it gave the gov. control over the railroads, in order to ensure that war supplies were delivered on time
Selective Service System (Draft) • Selective Service Act of 1917: >Created the Selective Service System: By August of 1917, all men ages 18 - 45 had to register for possible call to military service. >“conscientious objectors”: religious pacifists who were exempt from the draft. Examples: Amish, Quakers, etc. >Millions of Americans registered for the draft, & ~two million American soldiers actually went to Europe during WWI. Declaration of War video (Wilson, Pershing, draft): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rP_zPq7N4_c
Espionage Act & Sedition Act • The Espionage Act of 1917 (page 606): >meant to help find Central Powers spies, and censor war info >*censored mail and forms of media (this will be on test)* >made it illegal to encourage mutiny or obstruct recruitment >discriminated against people of Central Powers heritage • Sedition Act of 1918: • >*extension of the Espionage Act* • >made it illegal to criticize the war effort • >objectors to US involvement in WWI could be put in jail
Imprisonment of Eugene V. Debs • Debs had been on Wilson’s enemy list ever since the 1912 election season. (Debs was the candidate for Socialist Party) -Debs openly opposed US involvement in WWI, and often criticized Wilson. • June 1918, Ohio – he made a speech against the draft and was arrested for sedition. • Sentenced to 10 years in prison, butwas pardoned in 1921. • Ran for President while in jail in 1920, and got 6% of the vote.
Shenck v. United States (1918) • Charles T. Schenck and Elizabeth Baer were leaders of the Socialist Party in Philadelphia. >>They mailed pamphlets to US draftees, trying to convince them to oppose the war. >>They were charged with conspiracy to violate the Espionage Act and Sedition Act,by attempting to cause mutiny in the army, and obstructing recruitment. (Schenck) • Supreme Court Case: • >>his defense argued that he had protection of speech under the 1st Amendment. • >>The Supreme Court voted 9-0 against him, claiming that speech during “wartime” was subject to different standards. • >>Schenck got 6 months in Jail, and Baer got 3 months in jail.
War bonds: • are debt securities issued by a government for citizen purchase, in order to finance military operations and other expenses in times of war. • >>the buyer of the bond would be paid-back with a greater amount after the war was over. • Liberty Bonds – were the US version, created during WWI
US propaganda: • “Destroy this Mad Brute” • -page 607
The 1918 Influenza Pandemic • Called the “Spanish Flu”, because the first majorly-publicized outbreak was in Spain. -King Alfonso XIII of Spain nearly died from it -it can actually be traced back to Fort Riley and Fort Funston in Kansas, which were army training camps -US troops helped spread the disease to Europe • It killed millions of people worldwide, and about 500,000 Americans (citizens and soldiers) died from it. -the Flu killed more American soldiers than enemy weapons did, and weakened US forces at Argonne. *it killed more people worldwide in total, than died in WWI*
Rockefeller University and Richard Shope • Rockefeller (Medical) University in New York City: -founded in 1901 by oil man John D. Rockefeller as a charity -Germany had the best medical science, and America was pretty far behind, but the Rockefeller University helped improve the nation’s medical standards. -during the 1918 flu, Rockefeller U. doctors worked hard to research the flu – gaining helpful knowledge for the future • Richard Shope: • >>doctor at Rockefeller University • >>In 1931, he discovered that the flu was caused by a virus, and worked with British scientists to discover that it was the same disease as 1918 flu.
Rockefeller University Today (Image) • flu clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qx748gLo_Ks
The AEF (American Expeditionary Force) • -were the United States armed forces sent to Europe in WWI. served: May, 1917-1919. • “doughboys” – nickname for American ground troops; it came from the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), when US soldiers were covered in dust from marching through northern Mexico. • >>By 1918, the AEF consisted of a little over 1 million men. (due to draft) • >>Over 50,000 would die during the war (1/4th of them).
General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing • Pershing’s history of service: -graduated from West Point -fought in (US) Indian Wars -fought in battle of San Juan Hill -fought against Filipino rebels -killed many of Pancho Villa’s bandits in Mexico • Leader of the AEF: -enforced strict training for US troops -insisted that the US troops fight as their own group, instead of being used as replacements for French and Brits
Field Marshall Ferdinand Foch • Frenchgeneral • “Supreme Commander of the Allied Armies” • General Pershing technically worked for him. Foch (left) -with- Pershing (right)
US Forces Halt German Advance on Paris • German 1918 Spring Offensive: >>Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918: The new communist government (Bolsheviks) in Russia signed a peace treaty with the German Empire. >>With peace on the Eastern Front, and unrestricted U-boats attacking Allied supply ships, the Germans regained power on the Western Front. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTK0gywjGUY (video about German leaders launching Spring Offensive) >>In March of 1918, the Germans broke through the Western Front lines, and were about to reach Paris. US Forces Arrive To Help: >>The Germans didn’t expect General Pershing and the AEF troops, who showed-up in time to help defend Paris. >>Spring/Summer US-Involved Battles in Northern France: -(battles of) Cantigny, Belleau Wood, and Chateau-Thierry -page 612 (war map)
Battle of St. Mihiel • Battle of St. Mihiel(September 12th-16th, 1918) >>(US victory) Fought several miles southeast of the Argonne Forest, it reduced the German “salient” (bulge in the lines), and weakened German defense in the Meuse-Argonne region. (northeastern France) US forces: >>550,000 AEF troops led by General Pershing. French forces: >>48,000 French Army troops also under the command of Pershing.
Battle of the Argonne Forest • (26 September – 11 November 1918) Challenges: >very steep hilly terrain, and dense forest >Germany had fortified it heavily: many miles of barbed wire, concrete walls, pit traps, and machine gun nests. • US forces: >General Pershing and the AEF: in all, total of 1.2 million US soldiers, and 40,000 US artillery cannons fought in Argonne. >ManyUS soldiers were killed, but the US was able to break through the German lines. It is seen as one of the turning points of the Great War. *Total US deaths in WWI: ~117,000 (more than half by flu) • US military action in WWI: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3a3bqhgTCIg
Alvin C. York • Conscientious Objector: -deeply Christian, he opposed the idea of killing -drafted at age 29, and decided to fight anyway • Heroismat the Battle of Argonne Forest: -killed 25 German soldiers -took 132 Germans as prisoners -was awarded the Medal of Honor -2006 forensics proved his story true • Movie - “Sargent York”: -movie about his military career -used as propaganda during WWII http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KftgevurO7s
Armistice Day • armistice – an agreement to a cease-fire. • Armistice of the Great War: Signed between the Allies and Central Powers in Compiègne, France. -took effect on November 11th, 1918, at 11am. -11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month *”all was quiet on the Western Front”* • In the US, it is celebrated as Veteran’s Day, which honors all veterans living or dead. • Other nations celebrate it as some type of holiday for honoring dead soldiers. • -US Memorial Day: in late May (it changes)
Wilson’s 14 Points (Policy and Document) • Wilson expanded the US aims of the war from just defending “freedom of the seas” to a higher goal of “making the world safe for democracy”. • Main Ideas of the 14 Points (US War Goals): >>no more secret diplomacy between nations >>freedom of the seas, except in territorial waters >>removal of trade barriers between nations >>creation of (what was to be) The League of Nations >>independence for various European ethnic groups -Polish, Czech-Slovak, Balkans region, etc. -idea of SELF DETERMINATION
The Treaty of Versailles (1919) • Signed on June 28th, 1919, in Versailles, France. -page 615 • “Big 4” author nations of the Versailles Treaty: -the US, Great Britain, France, and Italy -*Russia was left-out because it was ruled by communists.* • Conditions of the Treaty (for Austria and The Ottomans): >Austro-Hungarian Empire broken-up into smaller nations. -Czechoslovakia formed -Yugoslavia formed >Ottoman Empire broken-up: -Turkey formed (Modern-day Turkey map)
Treaty of Versailles (cont.) • Conditions of the Treaty (for Germany): >Germany lost territory in France and in the east: -Alsace-Lorraine territory returned to France -Poland formed -page 617: territory lost map >War Guilt Clause: caused Germany to have sole responsibility for the war, lose its navy, greatly reduce its land army, and Germany had to pay billions in reparations. -Wilhelm II overthrown, German Republic formed • WWI Aftermath summary video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJ-T--Z4oEc
League of Nations • *Created by the Treaty of Versailles*, with the urging of Wilson and his administration. -Pg. 616 • The League was and organization of (Mostly European) nations formed in order to: -defend each-other against aggressors -prevent future wars, by using diplomacy and negotiation -it was the precursor to the United Nations today -League of Nations video (show after next slide): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TdHA5uT9ocg
Lodge(R) vs. Wilson(D) over The League • Wilson argued that the US joining the League of Nations would help prevent future wars. • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, and other Republicans in Congress argued that it would drag the US into unnecessary commitments, and limit America’s ability to act independently. • In the end, the US: • -rejected the Treaty of Versailles • -refused to join the League of Nations • -became more isolationist
WWI Leads to Future Conflicts? • Italy was angered by the refusal of the others to give it former Austrian territory. • Japan was angered by the lack of protection for non-white nations in the Treaty. • The Treaty of Versailles is said to have led to the rise of more nationalism, and a desire for revenge in Germany. (show last) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKzZ1OwPXgk