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Future of UK winter oilseed rape production. James Clarke & Susan Twining ADAS UK Ltd. Prepared for: Crop Protection Association Agricultural Industries Confederation. July 2009. Key messages. Winter oilseed rape provides a major benefit to UK agriculture

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Future of uk winter oilseed rape production

Future of UK winter oilseed rape production

James Clarke & Susan Twining

ADAS UK Ltd

Prepared for:

Crop Protection Association

Agricultural Industries Confederation

July 2009


Key messages
Key messages

  • Winter oilseed rape provides a major benefit to UK agriculture

    • Major benefit to farmers’ rotations

    • Gross margin, spreads fixed costs and provides weed control

  • Alternatives will result in loss of profitability

    • Spring crops already viewed as less profitable and unacceptable options

  • Farmers and agronomists must act now to ensure this valuable crop is still available

    • Adopt best practice and participate in stewardship

    • Protect water from herbicides and other pesticides



Contents

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Contents

  • UK Oilseed Rape Production

  • Threats to OSR pesticide availability

  • Impacts

    • On farming

    • On trading

    • On the environment


Uk oilseed rape production

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UK oilseed rape production

  • Area and importance

  • Prices

  • Uses


Trends in uk osr area winter spring

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800

700

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Total OSR area (thousand ha)

400

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0

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1993

1994

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2007

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Trends in UK OSR area (winter & spring)

Source: Defra statistics


Winter spring split 2004 2009

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Winter / Spring split 2004-2009

Source: Defra statistics


Oilseed rape in the rotation

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Oilseed rape in the rotation


Oilseed rape in the rotation1

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Oilseed rape in the rotation


Oilseed rape is an important break crop

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Oilseed rape is an important break crop


Future of uk winter oilseed rape production

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Source:HGCA


Osr yield trends

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4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

Yield (tonnes / ha)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

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1986

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OSR yield trends

Source: Defra statistics


Uk oilseed production and prices

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UK oilseed production and prices

Source: Defra statistics


Uk oilseed production and prices1

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UK oilseed production and prices

Source: Defra statistics


Osr markets in uk

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OSR markets in UK


Vegetable oil prices

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Vegetable oil prices


Protein prices

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Protein prices


Oilseed rape and pesticides

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Oilseed rape and pesticides

  • Pesticide use

  • Threats to pesticide availability


Of crop area treated with pesticides

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% of crop area treated with pesticides


Threats to pesticide availability

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Threats to pesticide availability

  • EU legislation

    • Thematic Strategy

      • Revision of 91/414/EEC

      • Achievement of Annex 1 listing by 2010

    • Water Framework Directive (WFD)

  • Resistance

  • Commercial pressures on existing and new products

    • Pesticide manufacturers

    • Food industry


Oilseed rape active substances at risk

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Oilseed rape active substances at risk

carbendazim cyproconazole flusilazole glufosinate metconazole tebuconazole

cyproconazole

prochloraz

carbetamide

napropamide

propachlor

quinmerac

tau fluvalinate

zeta-cypermethrin

metaldehyde

carbetamide

clopyralid

glyphosate

metaldehyde

metazachlor

propyzamide

carbendazim

chlorothalonil

chlorpyriphos

insecticides


Impacts

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Impacts

  • Farming

  • Trading

  • Biodiversity


Impacts on farming

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Impacts on farming

  • Weed and pest control

  • Rotations

  • Margins


Key losses 1 black grass control

WFD – propyzamide, carbetamide, metazachlor

Vital for control of black-grass

40% rape area affected

Major impact on yield (36% yield loss)

Equivalent to 280,000t loss production

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Key losses 1 – black-grass control


Loss of black grass control key implications

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Loss of black-grass controlKey implications

  • OSR yields could be reduced by up to 1.2t/ha

    • Up to £390/ha in lost gross margin – 75%

      • Yield loss from competition, increased herbicide costs

  • Few alternative crops on heavy land

  • Rotational implications are even bigger

    • Additional cost in wheat - £300/ha

      • More ploughing, delayed sowing, yield loss, increased herbicide costs

  • Spread of work load and early entry for cereals lost

NB where black-grass is a problem


Two hits are greater than one

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Two hits are greater than one!

Primary Loss – up to £390/ha from current OSR margins

Secondary Loss – up to £300/ha from winter cereal margins

NB where black-grass is a problem


Key losses 2 slugs

WFD & Annex 1 listing – Metaldehyde

Already under scrutiny

Complete crop losses a possibility if lost

Typically 3.5% yield loss

Replacements (methiocarb) available – environmental & cost implications

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Key losses 2 - slugs


Loss of slug control

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Loss of slug control

  • Average yields could be reduced by up to 0.2t/ha

  • Up to £60/ha in lost gross margin – 15%

  • Alternative methods are more expensive


Other areas of concern

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Other areas of concern

  • Revision of 91/414/EEC – metconazole & tebuconazole

    • Used as PGRs as well as fungicides

    • Can provide additional 0.2 t/ha yield response in absence of disease.

    • On individual crops this could cause losses of £60/ha


Alternative crops

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Alternative crops

  • Heavy land suited to winter cropping

  • Winter field beans

  • Spring cropping

  • Fallow


Rotational implications

Main break crop in arable rotations

In black-grass areas provides cleaning crop

If black-grass herbicides lost & control reduced;

Less favourable in black-grass infested fields

Alternative break crops (beans, spring cropping or fallow) may be sought

Increase in amount of ploughing to bury weed seeds

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Rotational implications


Impacts on margin compared to current wosr on fields with black grass

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Impacts on margin compared to current WOSR on fields with black-grass


Impacts on uk trading

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Impacts on UK trading

  • Inputs

  • Outputs

  • Protein

  • Biodiesel


Impacts on trading inputs

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Impacts on trading - inputs

Value Net change

  • Seed £21 million Redistribution

  • Pesticides £80 million Redistribution

  • Fertiliser £76 million £57 million

  • Based on switch to field beans and linseed

  • Switch to fallow would have larger impacts in all areas


Impacts on trading outputs

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Impacts on trading - outputs

Value

  • Crop £400 million

  • Oil £480 million

  • Rape meal £110 million


Sources of protein for livestock

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Sources of protein for livestock


Cost of protein

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Cost of protein


Biofuel use in uk 2008 09
Biofuel use in UK 2008/09

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Country of origin of oilseed rape feedstock

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Country of origin of oilseed rape feedstock


Impacts on the environment

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Impacts on the environment

  • Carbon emissions

  • Nitrogen

  • Biodiversity


Carbon emissions

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Carbon Emissions

  • Emissions from;

    • Production of raw materials (fertilisers, pesticides, seed)

    • Fuel usage in transport of raw materials & final product

    • Fuel usage in tractors & other farm operations

    • Soils as a result of nitrogen application & residue incorporation

    • From disposal of waste (plastics & packaging)


Carbon impacts of osr production

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Carbon impacts of OSR production

  • Large amounts of N applied

    • High emissions involved in production of N

    • N2O released as a result of application

    • Nitrogen approximately = 50% of total emissions


Carbon emissions from arable crops

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Carbon emissions from arable crops


Ghg savings of biodiesel from different feedstock compared to diesel

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GHG savings of biodiesel from different feedstock compared to diesel


Autumn nitrate levels by previous crop

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Autumn nitrate levels by previous crop


Biodiversity

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Biodiversity

  • Nesting sites

    • reed bunting

  • Feeding on stubbles and crops

    • yellowhammer, linnet

  • But also good for pigeons!


Summary winter oilseed rape has a

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Summary – winter oilseed rape has a…

Farming

  • Major benefit to farmers rotations

    • Gross margin, spreads fixed costs and provides weed control

      Trade

  • Positive effects on UK balance of payments

  • Significant requirement for N and crop protection

    Environment

  • Good crop cover in autumn to reduce nutrient leaching and soil erosion risks

  • Value to birds by providing feed and nest sites


Future of uk winter oilseed rape production1

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Future of UK winter oilseed rape production

James Clarke & Susan Twining

ADAS UK Ltd

Prepared for:

Crop Protection Association

Agricultural Industries Confederation

July 2009