Kathryn Talbott Intervention Specialist, Fairmont HS, Kettering, OH AbolitionOhio– The Rescue and Restore Coalition in the Miami Valley Anthony Talbott Political Science / Human Rights, University of Dayton AbolitionOhio– The Rescue and Restore Coalition in the Miami Valley Human Trafficking Presentation Slides for Parts 1-5
Part one: What is Human Trafficking? Activity one
Human trafficking is the modern day slave trade. • Human beings—mostly women and children are forced, tricked, or threatened into situations where they work for little or no pay and are unable to leave. Their labor and their bodies are exploited for another’s profit. They are subjected to horrible physical, psychological, and spiritual abuse that leaves them scarred for life—if they survive the ordeal.
Human Trafficking: Quick Stats • Over Twenty-seven million slaves exist in the world today • Two hundred thousand people are currently enslaved in the US • Arrests and convictions in over 160 countries and all 50 US states • Up to 17,500 new victims are trafficked across US borders each year • 800,000 to 900,000 human beings are bought, sold, or forced across the world’s borders each year • The FBI estimates that the slave trade generates nearly $35 billion in revenue each year
Sex Trafficking in USA • 100,000 CHILDREN in US are exploited for commercial sex (prostitution) • 300,000 CHILDREN in US are vulnerable to sexual exploitation • The average age of entry into prostitution in US is 12-14 YEARLS OLD • The average life expectancy of a prostitute in the US is 7 YEARS • Women, girls, and boys can be sex trafficked
Part one: What is Human Trafficking? Activity two
Trafficking Victims Protection Act • The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) defines “severe forms of trafficking” as: • 1) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, • 2) or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age; or, • 3) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. • A victim need not be physically transported from one location to another in order for the crime to fall within these definitions.
Explanations of Force, Fraud, &Coercion • These terms include any situation where an individual is forced to do something against their will, or where they are tricked into doing something by someone who is lying to them or suppressing the truth. • Force = Using violence to control someone • Coercion = Using threats to control someone • Fraud = Using lies to control someone • It is important to also point out that many times more than one of these ways are used to traffic an individual.
Part two: Where does Human Trafficking Take Place? Activity one
Trafficking in Ohio • Toledo: #1per capita in recruiting most traffickers and most underage girls into prostitution • Toledo: #4 city in arrests and investigations related to child sex trafficking • Over 60 cases investigated in Ohio since 2003 • 783foreign persons trafficked into Ohio’s labor and sex trade within past year • 1,078American-born Ohio youth trafficked into sex trade within past year • Nearly 3,000 American-born Ohio youth at risk for sex trafficking
TVPA Annual TIP ReportExplanation of Tiers • Tier 1 • Countries whose governments fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. • Tier 2 • Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards.
TVPA—Explanation of Tiers (continued) • Tier 2 Watch List • Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards AND: • a) the absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing; • b) there is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year, including increased investigations, prosecution, and convictions of trafficking crimes, increased assistance to victims, and decreasing evidence of complicity in severe forms of trafficking by government officials; or, • c) the determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional steps over the next year.
TVPA—Explanation of Tiers (continued) • Tier 3 • Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so. • The TVPA lists three factors by which to determine whether a country should be on Tier 2 (or Tier 2 Watch List) versus Tier 3: • the extent to which the country is a country of origin, transit, or destination for severe forms of trafficking; • the extent to which the country’s government does not comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards and, in particular, the extent to which officials or government employees have been complicit in severe forms of trafficking; • what measures are reasonable to bring the government into compliance with the minimum standards in light of the government’s resources and capabilities to address and eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons.
Part three: Types of Modern Day Slavery Activity one
8 Major Types of Human Trafficking • Forced Labor • Sex Trafficking • Bonded Labor • Debt Bondage Among Migrant Laborers • Involuntary Domestic Servitude • Forced Child Labor • Child Soldiers • Child Sex Trafficking
This woman in her early 20s was trafficked into a blue jean sweatshop, where she and other young women were locked in and made to work 20 hours a day, sleeping on the floor, with little to eat and no pay. She managed to escape and was brought to the government-run Baan Kredtrakarn shelter in Bangkok. After a few days, when she felt safe enough to tell her story to the director, the police were informed and they raided the sweatshop, freeing 38 girls, ages 14-26. Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.
1. Forced Labor • Also known as involuntary servitude • The majority of human trafficking in the world takes the form of forced labor • For every trafficking victim subjected to forced prostitution, nine people are forced to work • Immigrants are particularly vulnerable • Female victims of forced or bonded labor, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually exploited as well.
2. Sex Trafficking • When an adult is coerced, forced, or deceived into prostitution – or maintained in prostitution through coercion • Can also occur within debt bondage • A person’s initial consent to participate in prostitution is not legally determinative: if they are thereafter held in service through psychological manipulation or physical force, they are trafficking victims
Customers/exploiters come from all over the world. Legalized or tolerated prostitution is a magnet for sex trafficking. The U.S. Government considers prostitution to be "inherently demeaning and dehumanizing," and opposes efforts to legalize it. The PROTECT Act makes it illegal for an American to sexually abuse a minor in another country. Perpetrators can receive up to 30 years in jail. Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.
3. Bonded Labor • Also referred to as “debt bondage” or “indentured servitude” • One form of force or coercion is the use of a bond, or debt • Long been prohibited under U.S. law by its Spanish name, peonage • Traffickers or recruiters unlawfully exploit an initial debt the worker assumed as part of the terms of employment. • Workers may also inherit debt in more traditional systems of bonded labor. • In South Asia, for example, it is estimated that there are millions of trafficking victims working to pay off their ancestors’ debts.
Carpet weavers like this family are usually Dalits or "Untouchables," the lowest caste in South Asian society. In many instances, the children are helping a family member, or someone else in their village who has fallen into debt. An offer is made to place a loom in their hut so they can pay off their debt, but this only ensures their enslavement, sometimes for generations. Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.
4. Debt Bondage Among Migrant Laborers • Abuses of contracts and hazardous conditions of employment for migrant laborers not necessarily human trafficking. • However, illegal costs and debts on these laborers in the source country, often with the support of labor agencies and employers in the destination country, can contribute to a situation of debt bondage. • This is the case even when the worker’s status in the country is tied to the employer as a guest-worker in the context of employment-based temporary work programs.
5. Involuntary Domestic Servitude • Unique form of forced labor • Forced nannies, housekeepers, … • Workplace is informal, connected to off-duty living quarters, and not often shared with other workers • Social isolation of workers • Conducive to nonconsensual exploitation • Private property more difficult for officials to inspect • Many cases of untreated illnesses and widespread sexual abuse are reported
6. Forced Child Labor • Most laws allow children to engage in certain forms of work. • Agreement, however, that the worst forms of child labor should be eradicated • Indicators of possible forced child labor • Child in custody of a non-family member • Child performs work that financially benefits someone outside the child’s family • No option of leaving • Anti-trafficking responses should supplement, not replace, traditional actions against child labor • Rescue, restitution, and education
A 9-year-old girl toils under the hot sun, making bricks from morning to night, seven days a week. She was trafficked with her entire family from Bihar, one of the poorest and most underdeveloped states in India, and sold to the owner of a brick-making factory. With no means of escape, and unable to speak the local language, the family is isolated and lives in terrible conditions. Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.
Indian children work at a construction site in New Delhi, India. The construction project is one of many aimed at enhancing the city’s sporting and transport infrastructure in advance of the October 2010 Commonwealth Games. Migrant workers from all over India are being paid below the minimum wage and are living and working in substandard conditions to complete these projects. U.S. State Department.
7. Child Soldiers • Human trafficking if it involves the unlawful recruitment or use of children – via force, fraud, or coercion • Perpetrators may be government forces, paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups. • Many children are abducted to be used as combatants. • Others are made to work as porters, cooks, guards, servants, messengers, or spies. • Young girls can be forced to marry or have sex with male combatants. • Both male and female child soldiers are often sexually abused and are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.
8. Child Sex Trafficking • As many as two million children are subjected to prostitution in the global commercial sex trade. • Prohibited under U.S. law, Palermo Protocol, others • Sex trafficking has devastating consequences • Long-lasting physical and psychological trauma • Disease (including HIV/AIDS) • Drug addiction • Unwanted pregnancy • Malnutrition • Social ostracism • Death
Part four: Who is Being Trafficked? Activity one
A Roma (gypsy) child finds herself on the side of a road in northern Italy, ironically wearing a shirt that proclaims, "Outsider." Her family, which fled the ethnic turmoil in Bosnia, is always on the move. Poverty, discrimination, and social customs combine to make Roma children vulnerable to trafficking. Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department.
Vulnerabilities or “Push Factors” • 80% of victims are female-50% are children • Poverty • Living in a conflict zone • In area with recent major natural disaster • Member of a marginalized group • Racial/ethnic minority • Caste • Religion • Undocumented alien or migrant
More Vulnerabilities • From a patriarchal society • Women and girls are valued less • Females seen as subservient to males • From areas with high levels of corruption • Government/police involvement with traffickers • Lack of education • Does not speak local language • Low self esteem/self worth • Victim of abuse
Part four: Who is Being Trafficked? Activity two
US Locations, Occupations, & Situations Known Vulnerable to Human Trafficking • Housecleaning services • Landscape and gardening businesses • Domestic (home/childcare) workers • Large-scale agricultural labor • Construction sites • Casinos • Garment factories • Hotels (housekeeping) • Nail salons • Migrant or transitional communities • Zones known for prostitution • Strip clubs • Massage parlors • Domestic violence cases • Truck stops • Magazine subscription and other door to door sales
Part four: Who is Being Trafficked? Activity three
Polaris Project Red FlagsIndicators of Potential Trafficking • The Individual(s) in Question… • Is not free to leave or come and go as he/she wishes • Is under 18 years of age and is providing commercial sex acts • Is in the commercial sex industry and has a pimp/manager • Is unpaid, paid very little, or paid only through tips • Works excessively long and/or unusual hours • Is not allowed breaks or suffers under unusual restrictions at work • Owes a large and/or increasing debt and is unable to pay it off • Was recruited through false promises concerning the nature and conditions of his/her work • Is living or working in a location with high security measures (e.g. opaque or boarded-up windows, bars on windows, barbed wire, security cameras, etc.).
Red Flags (continued) • Exhibits unusually fearful, anxious, depressed, submissive, tense, or nervous/paranoid behavior • Reacts with unusually fearful or anxious behavior at any reference to “law enforcement” • Avoids eye contact • Exhibits a flat affect • Presents with unexplained injuries or signs of prolonged/untreated illness or disease • Appears malnourished • Shows signs of physical and/or sexual abuse, physical restraint, confinement, or torture.
Red Flags (continued) • Has few or no personal possessions • Is not in control of his/her own money, and/or has no financial records, or bank account • Is not in control of his/her own identification documents (e.g. ID, passport, or visa) • Is not allowed or able to speak for him/herself (e.g., a third party may insist on being present and/or interpreting) • Has an attorney that he/she doesn’t seem to know or to have agreed to receive representation services from.
Red Flags (continued) • Has been “branded” by a trafficker (e.g. a tattoo of the trafficker’s name) • Claims to be “just visiting” and is unable to clarify where he/she is staying or to provide an address • Exhibits a lack of knowledge of whereabouts and/or does not know what city he/she is in • Exhibits a loss of sense of time • Has numerous inconsistencies in his/her story.
What Can I do? • Educate yourself more • Spread the word • If you see something, report it to 888-3737-888 • Be aware! It could happen to you or your friends • Treat others with respect • Buy used (second hand, thrift stores,…) • Buy Fair Trade!
Art by school-aged child in Serbian government anti-trafficking awareness campaign. This image issued on special postage stamp.