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MAYA CIVILIZATION. MAYA TIMELINE. Olmec 1200-1000 BCE Early Preclassic Maya 1800-900 BCE Middle Preclassic Maya 900-300 BCE Late Preclassic Maya 300 BCE - CE 250 Early Classic Maya 250-600 CE Late Classic Maya 600-900 CE Post Classic Maya 900-1500 CE

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maya timeline
MAYA TIMELINE

Olmec 1200-1000 BCE

Early Preclassic Maya 1800-900 BCE

Middle Preclassic Maya 900-300 BCE

Late Preclassic Maya 300 BCE - CE 250

Early Classic Maya 250-600 CE

Late Classic Maya 600-900 CE

Post Classic Maya 900-1500 CE

Colonial period 1500-1800 CE

Independent Mexico 1821 to the present

maya geography
MAYA GEOGRAPHY
  • Lowlands
    • West borders Pacific Ocean, fertile plain
    • Yucatan Peninsula
    • Cenotes (excavated caverns) for water in east
  • Highlands
    • granite and volcanic area of Sierra Madre (Mexican Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras)
    • Rich land, abundant water
    • Concentrated settlement
maya history
MAYA HISTORY
  • Did not record history or daily lives, so much of what we know comes from archaeology and European (colonial) records
  • Many holes in our knowledge, and educated guesses
maya history1
MAYA HISTORY
  • Never recognized themselves as one people
  • Related dialects – similar language
  • City-states (Palenque, Copan, Chichen Itza)
  • No king or emperor but nobility
  • City-states tried to dominate each other (sound familiar?)
maya history2
MAYA HISTORY
  • Olmec lived in tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico
  • Provided basis for Mesoamerican civilizations
  • Bloodletting, glyphs similar to Maya
  • Distinctive art (colossal heads)
maya art
MAYA ART
  • Stelae – carved stone monuments
  • Rulers in elaborate costumes
  • Often with texts that described lineage and accomplishments
  • Headdress, ceremonial bar
maya art1
MAYA ART
  • Pacal death mask
  • Love of jade
  • Pottery popular
maya architecture
MAYA ARCHITECTURE
  • Houses of poles and thatch (cool)
  • Tikal (left) and Palenque (right)
maya society
MAYA SOCIETY
  • class society
  • Caste (membership hereditary and movement rare)
  • Little known about women, but evidence of city-state queens
maya culture
MAYA CULTURE
  • Corn (maize), beans, squash, chilies for flavour, domesticated turkey
  • Loved dance, music
  • pok-a-tuk (pok-a-tok) Maya ball game
  • Losers (including coach) sacrificed

http://www.ballgame.org/main.asp

maya culture1
MAYA CULTURE
  • Pierced ears, tattoos, body painting, straight black hair,
  • Large headdress for importance (Pacal, leader of Palenque, to right)
maya trade and economy
MAYA TRADE AND ECONOMY
  • Salt valued from Yucatan coast (preserve food, medicine, religious ceremonies) from north
  • granite from low mountains of Belize
  • Jade, volcanic glass, and obsidian from Chiapas highlands of western Guatemala
  • Tikal and Copan ‘middlemen’ cities in trade
  • cacao
maya economy trade
MAYA ECONOMY/TRADE
  • Quetzal feathers for nobility headdress
  • Extensive trade over 1000 miles
  • Porters carry goods (no beasts of burden)
maya tehnology innovation
MAYA TEHNOLOGY/INNOVATION
  • Calendar 260 days
  • Also tracked solar 365 calendar
maya technology innovation
MAYA TECHNOLOGY/INNOVATION
  • Math based on multiples of 20
  • 0, 1, 2
  • 5, 6
  • 10, 11
  • 15, 16
maya writing
MAYA WRITING
  • Writing 800 glyphs (picture/symbol represents an object, idea, or sound
  • Read left to right and top to bottom
  • Only elite could read as writing considered to be gift from the gods
  • Wrote many books (destroyed by Spanish)
maya religion
MAYA RELIGION
  • Driving force behind every aspect of life
  • Public temples and household shrines
  • Organized religion
  • Established schedule for agriculture
  • Polytheistic and revolved around nature (eg. Chac – Rain God)
maya religion1
MAYA RELIGION
  • Priestly blood sacrifice
  • Human sacrifice later in Post classic Period (Mexican influence)
  • Religious festival every 20 days
  • World 3 layers – Heavens, Earth, Under(Other)world
  • Priest dressed as jaguars , scary masks to scare demons of Underworld
  • Belief in afterlife