THE EMERGENCE OF “TOTAL” WAR AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. The First World War is often referred to as the first “total” war for four reasons: Industrial warfare by huge conscript armies demanded the reorganization of the whole economy.
The First World War is often referred to as the first “total” war for four reasons:
LEFT: An oil field near Baku on the Caspian Sea
Russian peasants newly arrived in Moscow,
looking for work;
22% of all peasant heads of household seceded from their village collective in the years 1906-1915
(an attempt to arouse “Jacobin nationalism”)War Minister Alexander Kerensky addresses troops about to leave for the front in 1917
LENIN’S APRIL THESES
Transform the Imperialist War into Civil War!
All Power to the Soviets!
Land for the Village Poor!
British troops line the banks of the St. Quentin Canal
Their multitude of German prisoners
In October 1918 Ludendorff told the Kaiser to appoint Prince Max of Baden head of a “parliamentary” government, but Max soon turned to Friedrich Ebert of the SPD
Social Democratic politicians address revolutionary sailors at Kiel, November 5, 1918: Mutiny broke out when the admirals ordered a desperate attack
When the “Big Four” gathered in Versailles in December 1918 (Lloyd George, Orlando, Clemenceau, and Wilson), they first debated whether to intervene in the Russian Civil War.
The Russian Civil War, 1918/19:In January 1919 Marshall Foch advocated intervention from Odessa, Murmansk, Archangel, Vladivostok, Poland, and Romania, but Lloyd George insisted that the Russian people preferred the Reds to the Whites.