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The Desert Blooms as a Rose Part 1. Immigration, Settlement, and Expansion in Utah. The Mormon Gathering. Brigham Young said that if outsiders left them alone for ten years, then no one could force them out again.

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the desert blooms as a rose part 1

The Desert Blooms as a RosePart 1

Immigration, Settlement, and Expansion in Utah

the mormon gathering
The Mormon Gathering
  • Brigham Young said that if outsiders left them alone for ten years, then no one could force them out again.
  • There were many challenges that they would face as they tried to turn Utah into a livable place.
  • These challenges would be an obstacle for every immigrant who came to Utah.
three main challenges that the mormons faced in utah
Three main challenges that the Mormons faced in Utah
  • 1. They had to learn how to survive in an unfamiliar arid environment.
  • 2. They tried to establish their culture with education, voluntary associations, music, theater, and medical practices.
  • 3. Faced the problems of dealing with the Native Americans.
where the immigrants came from
Where the Immigrants came from
  • After the first Mormon settlers arrived in 1847, a stream of immigrants came from the eastern, mid-western, and southern United States, Canada, and western Europe.
  • By 1860, more than 40,000 people had moved to Utah.
  • Almost all of them belonged to the Mormon church.
four immigrant eras
Four Immigrant Eras
  • 1847 Covered wagons pulled by oxen.
  • 1856-1860 Handcarts pulled by people.
  • 1861-1869 Down and back wagon trains.
  • 1869 Steam Locomotives.
  • The Mormons used various methods and the latest technology to get people across the continent.
a great gathering
A Great Gathering
  • Mormon missionaries had been converting people in North America and Europe.
  • These converts were encouraged to come to Utah to help build the “kingdom” or “Zion”.
  • They wanted large numbers to protect themselves from further persecution.
a great gathering1
A Great Gathering
  • Lots of skilled laborers were needed as well. This included architects, builders, weavers, printers, and people who knew how to manufacture iron, glass, and even sugar.
  • They were beginning a new civilization so every skill imaginable would be needed in order to be successful.
perpetual emigration fund
Perpetual Emigration Fund
  • Many converts to the Mormon church were poor and could not afford the trip to Utah.
  • The Perpetual Emigration fund was formed in 1849 to help converts get to Utah.
  • This fund would pay for poor converts to cross the ocean and plains, and then the converts would pay the loan back once they were established in Utah.
handcarts
Handcarts
  • Traveling in wagons was fairly expensive, and many converts could not afford a wagon with teams of oxen.
  • Church leaders decided to implement the handcart system.
  • This was a way to bring people to Utah at a low cost.
the handcart companies
The Handcart Companies
  • Handcarts were inexpensive, and fairly easy to make.
  • Immigrants would come to winter quarters by boat and foot.
  • Once they got there they would build handcarts and then cross the plains to Utah.
  • Handcarts were loaded with food, blankets, and clothing they needed to make the trip.
handcart companies
Handcart companies
  • Small babies and children rode in the carts.
  • Everyone had to work extremely hard to get there, pushing and pulling across the grassy plains and through the rugged mountains.
  • “For some must push, and some must pull, as we go marching up the hill, so merrily on the way we go until we reach the Valley O!
martin and willie handcart companies
Martin and Willie handcart companies
  • In 1856, the first handcart companies came across the continent. The first group, who left in June arrived successfully in September.
  • The Martin and Willie handcart companies were named after their captains, James G. Willie and Edward Martin.
  • They would face a lot of difficulties.
martin and willie handcart companies1
Martin and Willie Handcart companies
  • Almost all of these companies were made up of immigrants from Scandinavia and England.
  • They had many delays in their journey, including not having enough wood to build handcarts.
  • They did not leave Winter Quarters until August.
martin and willie handcart companies2
Martin and Willie Handcart companies
  • Franklin Richards, a Mormon apostle rode rapidly ahead to warn leaders in Salt Lake City that more immigrants were coming.
  • Leaders in Salt Lake thought that there were no more handcart companies coming in 1856.
  • The late start would lead to a disaster with the Martin and Willie companies.
martin and willie handcart companies3
Martin and Willie Handcart companies
  • When the handcarts reached Wyoming in November, they were caught in mountain snowstorms.
  • When the rescuers from Salt Lake City found them, people were in tents buried in snow, suffering from starvation, along with having frozen feet and fingers.
martin and willie handcart companies4
Martin and Willie Handcart companies
  • 280 of the 980 members of the companies had already died by the time rescuers came.
  • Many more died before they reached the Salt Lake Valley.
  • The rescuers were very heroic in their attempts, particularly at the Sweetwater River.
the rescue
The Rescue

The rescue happened here.

the rescue1
“If help had not come when it did, there would have been no one left to tell the tale,”

-Mary Hurren Wight

The Rescue
down and back wagon trains
Down and Back Wagon Trains
  • The “Utah Boys” were older boys and men who would drive teams across the plains, and help converts get from Winter Quarters in Iowa to Salt Lake City.
  • These young teamsters were adventure seekers eager to escape the boring life of farm work.
  • They also got to meet the single women before they got to Utah.