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Leadership and Team building. Dr. Kithsiri Edirisinghe MBBS , MSc , MD (Medical Administration) Master trainer (Australia) TAFE (Australia) Cert. IVLP (USA). 1. Leadership. Leadership. What is leadership?. Leading people. Influencing people. Commanding people. Guiding people.

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leadership and team building

Leadership and Team building

Dr. Kithsiri Edirisinghe

MBBS , MSc, MD (Medical Administration)

Master trainer (Australia)

TAFE (Australia)

Cert. IVLP (USA)

what is leadership
What is leadership?

Leading people

Influencing people

Commanding people

Guiding people

types of leaders
Types of Leaders
  • Leader by the position achieved
  • Leader by personality, charisma
  • Leader by moral example
  • Leader by power held
  • Intellectual leader
  • Leader because of ability to accomplish things
managers vs leaders

Focus on things

Do things right





Follows the rules


Focus on people

Do the right things





Shape entities

Managers vs. Leaders
common activities
Common Activities
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Directing
  • Controlling



Sets targets

Establishes detailed steps

Allocates resources


Devises strategy

Sets direction

Creates vision


Creates structure

Job descriptions






Gets people on board for strategy



directing work

Solves problems


Brings to consensus


Empowers people


Directing Work

Implements control systems

Performance measures

Identifies variances

Fixes variances




Gives sense of accomplishment

leadership traits

More intelligent than non-leaders



Being able to get things done


Doesn’t see to be correlated


Verbal facility









Leadership Traits
leadership styles

Low relationship/ low task


Willing employees


High relationship/ low task

Facilitate decisions

Able but unwilling


High task/high relationship

Explain decisions

Willing but unable


High Task/Low relationship

Provide instruction

Closely supervise

Leadership Styles
new leaders take note
General Advice

Take advantage of the transition period

Get advice and counsel

Show empathy to predecessor

Learn leadership


Need knowledge quickly

Establish new relationships


Personal equilibrium

New Leaders Take Note
new leader traps
Not learning quickly



Keeping existing team

Taking on too much

Captured by wrong people

Successor syndrome

New Leader Traps
seven basic principles
Seven Basic Principles
  • Have two to three years to make measurable financial and cultural progress
  • Come in knowing current strategy, goals, and challenges. Form hypothesis on operating priorities
  • Balance intense focus on priorities with flexibility on implementation….
seven basic principles con t
Seven Basic Principles, con’t
  • Decide about new organization architecture
  • Build personal credibility and momentum
  • Earn right to transform entity
  • Remember there is no “one” way to manage a transition
core tasks
Core Tasks
  • Create Momentum
  • Master technologies of learning, visioning, and coalition building
  • Manage oneself
create momentum
Foundation for change

Vision of how the organization will look

Build political base to support change

Modify culture to fit vision

Learn and know about company

Securing early wins

First set short term goals

When achieved make a big deal

Should fit long term strategy

Create Momentum
create momentum1
Create Momentum
  • Build credibility
    • Demanding but can be satisfied
    • Accessible but not too familiar
    • Focused but flexible
    • Active
    • Can make tough calls but humane
master technologies
Master Technologies
  • Learn from internal and external sources
  • Visioning - develop strategy
    • Push vs. pull tools
    • What values does the strategy embrace?
    • What behaviors are needed?
  • Communicate the vision
    • Simple text - Best channels
    • Clear meaning - Do it yourself!
enabling technologies con t
Enabling Technologies, con’t
  • Coalition building
    • Don’t ignore politics
    • Technical change not enough
    • Political management isn’t same as being political
    • Prevent blocking coalitions
    • Build political capital
manage oneself
Be self-aware

Define your leadership style

Get advice and counsel

Advice is from expert to leader

Counsel is insight

Types of help




Advisor traits



Enhance your status

Manage Oneself
collaboration through team building specialist

Collaboration Through Team BuildingSpecialist

A Module of Purdue University’s LeadingEdge Program

Collaboration Through Team Building
  • Session Objectives:
  • Identify and understand teams and how they function.
  • Demonstrate the skills necessary for the development of an
  • effective team.
Collaboration Through Team Building
  • Survival Run Video
  • Exercise – while watching the video write down the “team” behaviors and characteristics that you observe.
the most effective teams
The Most Effective Teams:

Collaboration Through Team Building

  • Share information openly
  • Participate in the team’s task
  • Encourage each other
  • Use all of the team’s resources

Collaboration Through Team Building

Complete the Self-Awareness Assessment.

  • Write down 05 good things
  • 05 bad things you experienced in a team
Collaboration Through Team Building
  • When groups are formed into teams:
  • Roles and interactions are not established.
  • Some members may observe as they attempt to determine
  • what’s expected of them.
  • Others engage the team process immediately.
  • As members learn their roles they find ways to work
  • together and learn about team issues.
  • These processes occur in 4 stages.
Collaboration Through Team Building

Stage One - Forming

Period in which members are often guarded in their interactions because they’re not sure what to expect from other team members.

This is also the period in which members form opinions of their teammates.

During this stage, productivity is low.

Collaboration Through Team Building
  • Forming – Enhance Team Development by:
  • Share responsibility
  • Encourage open dialogue
  • Provide structure
  • Direct team issues
  • Develop a climate of trust and respect.
Collaboration Through Team Building

Stage two - Storming

Characterized by competition and strained relationships among team members. There are various degrees of conflict dealing with issues of power, leadership and decision- making.

This is the most critical stage for the team.

Collaboration Through Team Building
  • Storming - Enhance Team Development by:
  • Joint problem solving.
  • Norms for different points of view.
  • Decision-making procedures.
  • Encourage two-way communication.
  • Support collaborative team efforts.
Collaboration Through Team Building

Stage three -Norming

Characterized by cohesiveness among members. In this phase, members realize their commonalities and learn to appreciate their differences.

Functional relationships are developed resulting in the evolution of trust among members.

Collaboration Through Team Building
  • Norming - Enhance Team Development by:
  • Communicate frequently and openly about concerns.
  • Encourage members to manage the team process.
  • Give positive and constructive feedback.
  • Support consensus decision-making efforts.
  • Delegate to team members as much as possible.
Collaboration Through Team Building

Stage four -Performing

The team now possesses the capability to define tasks, work through relationships, and manage team conflicts by themselves.

Communication is open and supportive. Members interact with without fear of rejection.

Leadership is participative and shared. Different viewpoints and information is shared openly.

Conflict is now viewed as a catalyst that generates creativity in the problem-solving process.

Collaboration Through Team Building
  • Performing - Enhance Team Development by:
  • Offer feedback when requested.
  • Support new ideas and ways for achieving outcomes.
  • Encourage ongoing self-assessment.
  • Develop team members to their fullest potential.
  • Look for ways to increase the team’s capacity.
Collaboration Through Team Building


Any change in the composition of the team or its

leadership will return the team to the forming stage.

Collaboration Through Team Building

The most effective teams arrive at decisions through consensus by following a rational process that includes:

  • Identifying the issue.
  • Setting a specific objective.
  • Gathering and analyzing the facts.
  • Developing alternatives.
  • Evaluating the alternatives.
  • Deciding and acting.
Collaboration Through Team Building

In addition to the problem solving process, teams must also

engage in interpersonal interaction.

Decisions are made and objectives are achieved not only

by effectively following the problem solving process, but

also to the extent that team members share information in

an open, candid, honest, and trustful manner.

Collaboration Through Team Building


“Hurricane Disaster” - problem solving and team building exercise.

Collaboration Through Team Building

Problem Solving Process

  • Identifying the issue.
  • Setting a specific objective.
  • Gathering and analyzing the facts.
  • Developing alternatives.
  • Evaluating the alternatives.
  • Deciding and acting.
Collaboration Through Team Building

“Hurricane Disaster” Activity - Five essential strategies:

1. Issue an evacuation order and ensure it is communicated

throughout the entire community using all available resources.

2. Order that all designated emergency shelters be opened and


3. Instruct all public safety units to aid in an orderly evacuation

and in assisting those who cannot be evacuated to be transported

to the designated emergency shelters.

Collaboration Through Team Building

“Hurricane Disaster Activity” - Five essential strategies:

4. Arrange for controlled access to evacuated areas and prepare

to prevent looting.

5. Plan for the return of the evacuees after the hurricane danger

is over: including shelter and relocation, damage assessment,

and recovery operations.

Collaboration Through Team Building
  • In Review:
  • Differences between groups and teams.
  • 4 Stages of team development and ways to enhance team development.
  • Team problem solving process.
  • Experienced the team building and problem solving processes.
there are many types of teams
There are Many Types of Teams
  • Examples of Teams:
    • Athletic Team – people working together to win a game
    • Natural Work Group – people working together every day in same office with similar processes and equipment
    • Business Team – cross-functional team overseeing a specific product line or customer segment
    • Improvement Team – ad hoc team with responsibility for improving an existing process
    • Healthcare Team – several healthcare professionals working closely together for the benefit of a patient or group of patients
when to use a team
When to use a team?

Quality and Acceptance

understanding group behavior
Understanding group behavior
  • Group Content - what is being said, the words, the discussion
  • Group Process - how the group works, methods, ways of making decisions, how people participate
aspects of group process communication
Aspects of Group Process: Communication
  • Who talks to whom?
  • Who interrupts and how is it handled?
  • How are quiet members treated?
  • High and low participators? Shifts in participation levels?
  • Do people look at each other when they talk?
  • How are new members treated?
aspects of group process decision making
Aspects of Group Process: Decision -making
  • What process does the group use to make decisions?
  • Is the process agreed upon by everyone?
  • Does the process change as group proceeds?
  • Does anyone make a decision and carry it out without agreement from the others?
  • Is there evidence of a majority pushing a decision
  • Are minority opinions heard?
aspects of group process problem solving
Aspects of Group Process: Problem-solving
  • Does the group take time to understand the problem?
  • Is the problem well articulated?
  • Is there time for brainstorming creative solutions?
  • Can the group move to from problem identification, identifying possible solutions, to selecting solutions and implementation?
group problem solving
Group Problem Solving
  • Involve people
  • Generate ideas
  • Presentation
  • Listen for common
  • Themes
  • Organize ideas
  • Evaluate alternatives
  • Manage conflict
  • Details/Finish
  • Motivate
  • Monitor progress
  • Find resources
  • Get information
  • Assign responsibilities
  • Develop plan
recognizing dysfunctional behavior
Recognizing Dysfunctional Behavior
  • Blocking
  • Aggression
  • Dominating
  • Withdrawing
  • Out of field behavior
team roles task
Team Roles: Task
  • Initiating
  • Seeking and Giving Information
  • Clarifying
  • Summarizing
  • Consensus Taking
  • Accountability
team roles relationships
Team Roles: Relationships
  • Communication Gatekeeping
  • Encouraging
  • Resolving Conflict
  • Acknowledging Feelings
  • Setting Standards/Norms
  • Openness
attitudes for effective teamwork
Attitudes for Effective Teamwork
  • Appreciation for value of team decisions
  • Respect for team members
  • Mutual trust
  • Openness to feedback
  • Reflection on group process and interest in improving
  • Shared vision
team exercise
Team Exercise
  • Instructions for Observers
  • Instructions for Team members
  • Team Exercise
  • Scoring, Team members and Observer comments
  • Discussion
what are characteristics of effective teams
What are Characteristics of Effective Teams?
  • Members have a clear goal
  • The focus is on achieving results
  • There is a plan for achieving the goal
  • Members have clear roles
  • Members are committed to the goal
  • Members are competent
  • They achieve decisions through consensus
  • There is diversity among team members
  • Members have effective interpersonal skills
  • They know each other well and have good relationships
more characteristics
More Characteristics
  • Each member feels empowered to act, speak up, offer ideas
  • Each member has a high standard of excellence
  • An informal climate and easiness exists among members
  • The team has the support of management
  • The team is open to new ideas
  • There is periodic self-assessment
  • There is shared leadership of the team
  • The team is a relatively small size
  • There is recognition of team member accomplishments
  • There are sufficient resources to support the team work
effective team building takes time
Effective Team-Building Takes Time
  • There must be frequent and prolonged contact
  • Team members come together around a specific goal or project
  • Effective teams go through four stages of team development
what are the four stages of team development
What are the Four Stages of Team Development?
  • Forming
  • Storming
  • Norming
  • Performing
  • Every effective team goes through these life cycle stages
  • Team members are introduced and begin getting to know each other
  • Goals and tasks are established
  • Generally polite behavior among members
  • Norms are not understood
  • Members are sizing each other up and may feel more comfortable and voice their views
  • Members may compete for team roles
  • May argue about goals or how they should be accomplished
  • May choose sides against other members
  • Once issues are resolved, agreement occurs around team norms and expectations
  • Trust and common interests are developing
  • Roles and objectives are clarified and understood
  • Members make contributions and are motivated by results
  • Leadership is shared according to members’ knowledge and skills
  • Norms and culture are well understood
  • Tasks get accomplished effectively and efficiently
  • Thiagarajan, S. and Parker, G. (1999). Teamwork and Teamplay. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
  • Dean, P., LaVallee, R., & McLaughlin, C. (1999). Teams at the core of continuous learning in McLaughlin, & Kaluzny, A. (eds.) Continuous Quality Improvement in Health Care: Theory, Implementation, and Applications, 147 – 168.