Rivers and Flooding. . . Solar radiation. . Vapour. Precipitation. . Interception by plants. Transpiration. Evaporation. . Drip flow. . . Surface or overland flow. Surface storage. . Storage in plants. Infiltration. Soil throughflow.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Interception by plants
Surface or overland flow
Storage in plants
Osmosis (taken into plants through roots)
River flow or discharge (m³/sec)
Peak of precipitation event (storm)
Discharge is the amount of water in the river
In 1998 the floods in Bangladesh were the worst ever experienced. They lasted for over 2 months and over half of the country was under water.
When a river reaches a meander most of the water is directed to the outside of the bend. Most of the energy is focussed here.
The outside of the bend is undercut, collapses and retreats leaving a RIVER CLIFF.
The water on the inside of the meander the water flows slowly. As the river loses energy I will deposit sediment. This develops a SLIP OFF SLOPE.
This can cause the river to flow too slowly!
Erosion on two outside bends can bring them closer together
During floods the channel may break through the neck of the bends and straighten its course
Lining with Concrete
Swanage bay is a famous example of bays and headlands. Two headlands (Peveril point and Hardfast point) are made from hard chalk and limestone. The softer clay has eroded much more quickly to form swanage bay. At Hardfast point lies Harry and his wife! (stack & stump!)
Hopefully you know this one!
A bar is a long stretch of beach material (sand or shingle) that joins together two headlands. A lagoon usually forms behind the bar. An example of a sand bar is Slapton Ley in Devon.
Rip Rap Beach rebuilding
Groynes Offshore breakwater
Collision Plate Boundary – Two plates move TOWARDS each other and form fold mountains. E.G. Himalayas.
Conservative Plate Boundaries – Two plates SLIDE PAST each other either in different directions or at different speeds. E.G. San Andreas Fault in LA.
Constructive Plate Boundary – two plates move AWAY from each other. E.G. Mid Atlantic Ridge.
Destructive Plate Boundary – Two plates move TOWARDS each other and one sinks. E.G. Mount Vesuvius in Pompeii
Japan is positioned on the boundary of the Eurasian plate and the Philippines plate.The Kobe Earthquake 1995
At 5.46am on January 17th 1995, whilst many of its citizens were still asleep, the Japanese city of Kobe was hit by largest earthquake in Japan since 1923. It measured 7.2 on the Richter Scale. Kobe lies only 20 KM away from the epicentre.
The Philippine plate is sinking beneath the Eurasian plate because the plate is heavier. As it sinks the plate rub together forming friction and heat. As the plates heat up they melt. As the volcano fills up with magma, pressure builds up. When the pressure becomes too much the volcano erupts.
What are the characteristics of the inner city?
Glasgow has a long history. During the industrial revolution it was the second largest city in the British Empire. It thrived because of ship building along the River Clyde and the coal deposits needed for such industry.
However, most of the population lived in very poor standards - Tenement buildings. These had no running water or toilet facilities. Most were disease ridden and rat infested! Unemployment and poverty was widespread at this time.
The Gorbles area in Glasgow was cleared of its slums and redeveloped. This is called Comprehensive Redevelopment. Everybody was moved out of the tenements and the area was cleared.
It was known as the GEAR Project. Glasgow Eastern Area Scheme.
It was designed to solve the terrible living conditions in the inner city area.
Jobs were created, business encouraged to grow, the environment was improved. However, it wasn’t all a success.
Why move to the Bright Lights of the City?
A Favela ‘ Temporary accommodation often found at the edge of an LEDC city where new arrivals squat on land.
What are the problems of living in a Favela?
Can you name some
sparse & dense?
Describes the number of people living in a given area (kilometres squared).
What is happening in stages 1 -4?
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world today. It creates employment and money and allows people to earn a living. There are many reasons for this. In the UK people have greater affluence than ever before and can afford to take more or longer holidays We now work a shorter hours and have more paid holidays per year than ever before. Transport has improved greatly since the Second World War which allows us to travel around the world cheaper and quicker than ever before.
The Costa del Sol has many things to offer including the climate, beaches and scenery. Tourism creates jobs for local and allows the economy of the area to develop. However, tourism can bring numerous problems. For example, the money generated from tourism leaves the country and rarely benefits the locals. The Spanish government are protecting areas, and are marketing the area as an up market resort. They are promoting areas and activities that are less damaging such as cycling and hiking. New buildings and hotels are being built small and have to blend in with the local scenery.
Attractions: Climate, scenery, mount Kenya, safari, beaches, coral reefs, animals, culture, Massai Mara tribes, diving, etc ….
Advantages and disadvantages of using a National Park