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Body Chemistry . Carbon . Organic Four valence electrons Great for bonding! Can form long chain or ring structure Carbons with different elements join to make MACROMOLECULES . Branched Chain. 4 Main Classes .

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slide3

Carbon

  • Organic
  • Four valence electrons
  • Great for bonding!
  • Can form long chain or ring structure
  • Carbons with different elements join to make MACROMOLECULES

Branched Chain

slide5

Many BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES are very large (containing hundreds to millions of atoms) made up of SMALLER MOLECULES that repeat to make larger chains

  • Monomers: small molecular building blocks of a larger molecule (Beads)
  • Polymers: long chain of small molecular units (Necklace)
monomers polymers
Monomers Polymers

Macromolecules:

link many small similar units called MONOMERS together to make long chain POLYMERS

foods
Foods:
  • Potato
  • Pasta
  • Milk
  • Apples
  • "Fiber” is also a carbohydrate (cellulose) we can’t digest it.
elements
Elements
  • C H O
  • In a 1:2:1 ratio

(always twice as

much hydrogen!)

purpose function
Purpose/Function
  • Main purpose is short term ENERGY!
  • Larger molecules either store energy or build structures
slide11

SMALLER UNITS (MONOMERS):

  • ONE SUGAR MOLECULE
    • Example:
slide12

Disaccharide

  • Two sugars bound together
  • Di- means TWO
  • sucrose(glucose + fructose)
  • maltose(glucose + glucose)
  • lactose(glucose + galactose)
slide14

Aka “FIBER”

Cellulose

Structural carb in PLANTS cell walls

slide15

Chitin

Structural carb 

Exoskeletons of arthropods (insects, crabs, lobsters, crayfish etc.)

slide16

Animals only! Stored in LIVER as granules

Glycogen

Stores carbohydrates for approx. 24 hours (then carbs convert into fat!)

slide17

Plants only!

Starch

Carb storage in plants

common indicator tests for carbohydrates
Common indicator tests for Carbohydrates
  • Benedicts Solution
    • Will turn orange in the presence of simple sugars
  • Iodine
    • Will turn a blue black color in the presence of starch
slide19

How to test starch:

1. In a test tube, add 2 dropperfuls of mixed starch

solution. Record “Initial Color”.

2. Add 5-6 drops of iodine to the test tube. Record

color.

How to test glucose:

1. Add 2 dropperfuls of glucose solution. Record

“Initial Color”.

2. Add 1 dropperful of Benedict’s solution (blue).

3. Place in hot water bath for ~2 mins.

4. CAREFULLY take out and place in rack. Record

color.

foods high in fats
Foods high in Fats
  • Butter
  • Processed meats like sausage

and salami

  • Avocado
  • Nuts
lipids commonly known as fats
Elements:

Contain C HO (no ratio)

Main functions

Long term storage of energy

Insulation

Protection

Form membranes

Hormones (steroids)

Lipids(Commonly known as fats)
smaller units triglycerides fats storage
SMALLER UNITS:Triglycerides“Fats” (storage)
  • 3 fatty acids and a glycerol
    • Ex: Waxes, oils and “fats”
  • Long term energy storage
  • Insulation and protection
  • (cushioning to vital organs or protective layers
  • – ex. wax on leaves of plants)
smaller units phospholipids in cell membranes
SMALLER UNITS: Phospholipids (in cell membranes!)
  • Phosphate/glycerol attached to 2 fatty acids
    • ‘Head’ is hydrophilic
    • ‘Tails’ are hydrophobic
larger units steroids
LARGER UNITS: Steroids..
  • 4 carbon rings joined to one another.
    • Chemical signals (Hormones)
    • Structure (Cholesterol)
  • Examples:

sex hormones,

cortisol, &

cholesterol

waxes
WAXES
  • Hydrophobic protective covering on plants to prevent water loss
additional info saturated fats
Additional Info:SATURATED FATS
  • “Bad Fat”
  • Fatty acid has Single bonds
  • Found in most animal fats
  • Solid at room temperature
unsaturated fat
UNSATURATED FAT
  • “Good Fat”
  • Double bonds in fatty acid
  • Found in fruits, vegetables, fish, and oils
  • Liquid at room temperature
test for lipids
Test for lipids

Paper test

Paper will become dark and “Waxy” in the presence of fat

Ethanol Solubility Test

Oil floats in water, dissolves in ethanol

proteins1
PROTEINS

Foods with proteins:

Steak, meat, poultry, eggs, soybeans, tofu

Elements: C H O N S

purpose
PURPOSE:

1. Structure

    • Keratin hair, nails, skin

2. Hormones (signaling between cells)

    • Insulin, Human growth hormone
  • Enzymes
    • Speed up chemical

reactions

small units
Amino acids

There are 20 different amino acids.

All amino acids have:

amine group NH2

carboxyl group COOH

hydrogen H

Side group (changes)

Small Units

Draw this

side note what is phenylalanine is it bad for you
Side Note: What is Phenylalanine? Is it bad for you?
  • Coke Can, Yogurt, Mints

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Amino acid called phenylalanine

larger units peptides proteins
Larger Units:Peptides / Proteins
  • Peptide bond

Chain of 50-100 amino

acids linked together =

Polypeptide

100+ amino acids

linked = protein

other info
OTHER INFO
  • Protein shape DETERMINES its function!
    • Analogy- fork, knife, spoon
other info con t examples of proteins
OTHER INFO (con.’t)Examples of proteins
  • Hemoglobin - carries oxygen in bloodstream

(4 polypeptide strands)

  • Actin & Myosin- muscle fibers
other info con t
OTHER INFO. (con.’t)
  • Denaturation- protein loses its normal configuration
    • pH
    • Temperature
    • Salinity

What happens to proteins when you heat them?

hydrogen bonds in protein secondary structure denaturation of protein ph heat
Hydrogen Bonds in Protein Secondary Structure: Denaturation of Protein ( pH & Heat)
  • Review Hydrogen Bonds http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LK7ERiCy5b8
  • Hair straightener:
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zf-g4k7ZIjA
what is the polymer what is the monomer
What is the polymer? What is the monomer?

Monosaccharides

Polysaccharides

Amino Acids

Polypeptides/Proteins

Glycerol &

3 Fatty Acids

Triglycerides

( Fats and Oils)

monomers polymers1
Monomers Polymers

Macromolecules:

link many small similar units called MONOMERS together to make long chain POLYMERS

dehydration reaction
Dehydration Reaction
  • Each time a monomer is added to a chain, a water molecule is released
  • Removing (de-) water (hydro-)
  • Build up molecules!
    • Ex. Make your hair proteins
hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
  • The break down of polymers into monomers
  • Must add water
    • Hydro (water)

lysis (break)

    • Ex. break down starch, into glucose from the cracker ( digestion)
do now 5 1 online activity
DO NOW 5.1 Online Activity

1. Describe the role of water in the building and breaking down of polymers.

2. You just ate a big pasta dinner. Pasta contains a polymer called starch, which in turn is made up of many monomers called glucose. What do you think happens during the digestive process to break down the starch into usable glucose?

i what are enzymes
I. What are enzymes?
  • Your body has lots of reactions!
  • Enzymes: Special Protein catalysts that speed up specific reactions
  • End in ASE
    • Ex. Lactase digest lactose
  • HOW?
ii activation energy
II. Activation Energy

 The energy needed to get a reaction started

iii lower the activation energy
III. Lower the Activation Energy
  • Activation energy is the “start up” energy of a reaction
  • They do not raise the temp!
  • Increase the frequency that the reactants come together to react!
enzymes

Without Enzyme

With Enzyme

Free

Energy

Free energy of activation

Reactants

Products

Progress of the reaction

Enzymes
iv enzymes are specific
IV. Enzymes are Specific
  • How?
  • The shape of each enzyme fits the shape of what its acting on
  • SUBSTRATE- What the enzyme acts on
  • The substrate fits into a region of the enzyme ACTIVE SITE
  • Animation
v lock key model
V. Lock & Key Model
  • Lock is the enzyme
  • Key is the substrate
  • The lock hole is the

active site

slide60

Enzymes can only catalyze 1 reaction because they only allow substrates with one particular shape to bond

oes not fit!

factors that affect enzyme performance
Factors that Affect Enzyme Performance
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • Salinity
  • Concentration of enzyme or substrate
temperature
Temperature
  • Enzymes are PROTEIN
  • Heat too high they can denature
slide63
pH
  • Enzymes work best at an ‘optimal’ pH
  • Proteins they can denature
enzymes are reusable
Enzymes are Reusable
  • Enzymes will speed the reaction for a substrate
  • It will release the product and will work on another substrate
examples
Examples
  • Lipase
  • Protease
  • Lactase
  • Sucrase
  • Amylase
  • Life is not possible without enzymes! !!!!!!!
enzymes1
Enzymes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hoBhOdQV7vw