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Truman . A whole lot of Foreign Policy. Beginnings of the Cold War. Early 1945, center is on Poland Who would rule in Poland? What would the Polish boundary be? The Soviet puppet Lublin government was recognized as the leaders of Poland

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A whole lot of Foreign Policy

beginnings of the cold war
Beginnings of the Cold War
  • Early 1945, center is on Poland
  • Who would rule in Poland?
  • What would the Polish boundary be?
  • The Soviet puppet Lublin government was recognized as the leaders of Poland
  • At the Yalta conference, Stalin agrees to unfettered and free elections. He never had it in mind to act on it
  • Stalin shut the West and 4 freedoms out of East Europe
cold war intellectual kennan
Cold War intellectual Kennan
  • “opposed to denazification policy” because Germans would soon join US in opposition to Soviet Union
  • No need for US- Russia post-war collaboration
  • Only need was clear definition of sphere of influence and Russia would never expand their area of hegemony
  • Does not like the do-nothing attitude toward Stalin
  • Truman demanded free elections in Poland
  • Stalin argues that Poland borders Russia, not the US or Great Britain
  • Stalin stated that he was not consulted with the formation of governments in Belgium or Greece
  • Decides on hard-line but it was always verbal
  • Decides on economic pressure to get compliance with the US
  • Orders end to lend-lease that countermands it after Stalin becomes upset
  • Shocking to do this before USSR declares war on Japan
  • Stalin will build economy from the backs of its people and take industry from Germany
cold war defeat
Cold War defeat
  • Truman is faced with recognizing Polish government backed by Stalin or break relations with Soviet Union
  • Truman decides to recognize Polish government
  • Many see this as first major Cold War defeat for the United States
  • Major issue was Germany
  • Agreement to split Germany into 4 regions with a military commander in charge of each region
  • These commanders would form the Allied Control Council (ACC) – they would work out the details of reunification which need unanimity.
  • Problem: France and USSR wanted a weakened Germany – Great Britain and US wanted a united self-sufficient Germany. The reason Germany was not reunited earlier.
  • Russia would also receive 25% industrial capacity from west Germany in exchange for 15% of agriculture from east Germany
  • Russia got a carte blanche for its occupied zones
  • Truman came away from meeting with understanding that Russia only understood force and Japan would only be occupied by the US with MacArthur as commander
the bomb
The Bomb
  • Gave Truman an awesome sense of power
  • The bomb could fight the cold war without sacrificing US citizens, a judicious use of finances, and its threat could shape the world in the US favor
  • Problem: bombs of 1945-1949 could not destroy the USSR
  • Stalin could match the destruction of Moscow with the take-over of Western Europe
tension in the middle east
Tension in the Middle East
  • Stalin would not withdraw troops from Iran because he wanted oil concessions
  • Russia initiates rebellion in northern Iran to influence events
  • Russia leaves with formation of Iranian-Soviet oil company
  • In 1947, the Iranian parliament rejected the company and it was a defeat for the Soviets
  • August 1946, Soviets wanted equal access to the straits
  • Truman tells Turks to stand strong that the US would back them up, even sending a carrier group to the area
  • Soviets back down
  • Becomes wary of US and Great Britain after Fulton, Missouri March, 1946 speech by Churchill in which he said an Iron Curtain had descended across Eastern Europe
  • Pulls out of World Bank and IMF.
  • Put more pressure on Iran
  • Announced a new five-year plan to make the Soviet Union self-sufficient in the event of war
  • Intense campaign to remove western influences inside the Soviet Union
acheson lilienthal plan
Acheson-Lilienthal Plan
  • Called for international control of atomic energy
  • Keep the Soviets from getting one and in a series of stages destroy the atomic bombs the US possessed.
  • Never realized because the US felt the bomb was the only weapon that could hold back the Soviets