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WHY HEALTHIER LUNCHES?. Not Just Because We Say So Sandra Richardson, MPH Student Walden University PH 6165-5 Environmental Health Instructor: Dr. Donald Goodwin Fall, 2009. Middle. High. School Students. INTRODUCTION.

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why healthier lunches


Not Just Because We Say So

Sandra Richardson, MPH Student

Walden University

PH 6165-5 Environmental Health

Instructor: Dr. Donald Goodwin

Fall, 2009



School Students

  • Purpose: Educate students on the necessity of healthy eating and the need to change school lunch menus.
  • Expected outcome: To convince students

of the benefits of healthy meals and deter decreased participation in lunch programs.

why change
Why Change?
  • Health Concerns
    • 16% of children in the U.S. between 2 and 6 are obese.
    • Obesity increases the risk of chronic diseases:
      • Type 2 Diabetes
      • Cardiovascular Disease
      • Liver Disease
    • Quality of life can be compromised with these conditions

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d.)

why change cont d more on chronic disease
Why Change? Cont’dMore on Chronic Disease
  • Type 2 Diabetes
    • Approximately 24 million Americans have type 2 diabetes, and approximately 57 million more are at risk.
    • Diabetes strikes every 20 seconds in the U.S.

(American Diabetes Association, 2009)

u s population with diabetes or at risk
U.S. Population With Diabetes or at Risk

1= U.S. population 304M

2= Population with

diabetes 24M

3=Population at risk for

diabetes 57M

American Diabetes Association, 2009

U.S. Census Bureau, 2009

why change cont d more on chronic disease6
Why Change? Cont’dMore on Chronic Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
    • Approximately 70% of obese children have at least one risk factor for CVD
    • Approximately 39% of obese children have two or more risk factors for CVD
  • Liver Disease
    • Fatty liver disease causing inflammation leading to liver damage if not remedied

(CDC, n.d.)

why change cont d
Why Change? Cont’d
  • Psychosocial Concerns
    • Systematic social discrimination
      • Low self-esteem
      • Academic performance
    • Good nutrition linked to enhanced academic performance

(CDC, n.d.)

(Florence, Asbridge, and Veugelers, 2008)

nutrition basics
  • USDA Recommended Minimum Caloric Intake Requirements (Lunch):
    • Preschool – 517
    • Grades K-6 – 664
    • Grades 7-12 – 825

(United States Department of Agriculture [USDA], n.d.)

nutrition basics cont d daily recommended caloric intake
Nutrition Basics Cont’dDaily Recommended Caloric Intake

Total Daily



Girls Boys

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.

nutrition basics cont d
Nutrition Basics Cont’d
  • Basic Food Groups
    • Meat/Fish/Poultry
    • Dairy
    • Fruits and Vegetables
    • Bread and Grains

(USDA, n.d.)

basic food groups cont d meat fish poultry
Basic Food Groups Cont’dMeat/Fish/Poultry
  • Provides protein (building blocks for the bodies tissues
  • Healthier sources include nuts, beans, fish, chicken, lean beef, eggs in limited amounts
  • Fatty sources include fatty beef, pork, lamb, bologna, salami, etc., - recommend very limited consumption
  • Daily Requirements:

Ages 2-8 = 2-4 oz.

Ages 9-13 = 5 oz.

Ages 14-18 = 5-6 oz.

(USDA, n.d.)

nutrition basics cont d dairy
Nutrition Basics Cont’dDairy
  • Provides Calcium (builds bones and teeth)
  • Sources include milk, cheese, yogurt, & dark leafy greens
  • Low-fat forms are healthier
  • Daily Requirements:

Ages 2-8 = 2 cups*

Ages 9-13 = 3 cups*

Ages 14-18 = 3 cups*

*One cup = 1-1/2 – 2 oz cheese

(USDA, n.d.)

nutrition basics cont d fruits and vegetables
Nutrition Basics Cont’dFruits and Vegetables
  • Provides vitamins, minerals, and fiber (helps to regulate the body)
  • Sources include apples, tomatoes, plums, berries, lettuce, kale, broccoli and much more!
  • Daily Requirements

Ages 2-8 = 2 cups

Ages 9-13 = 3 cups

Ages 14-18 = 3 cups

(USDA, n.d.)

nutrition basics cont d breads and grains
Nutrition Basics Cont’dBreads and Grains
  • Provides carbohydrates, B vitamins, and minerals (provides energy to the body)
  • Healthier sources include whole grain breads, pasta, and cereals
  • Less healthy sources include refined starches (white bread, cookies, etc) and should be eaten in minimum amounts

(USDA, n.d.)

breads and grains cont d
Breads and Grains Cont’d
  • Daily Requirements:

Ages 2-3 = 3 oz.

Ages 4-8 = 4-5 oz.

Girls Ages 9-13 = 5 oz.

Girls Ages 14-18 = 6 oz.

Boys Ages 9-13 = 6 oz.

Boys Ages 14-18 = 7 oz.

(USDA, n.d.)

what about snacks
What about Snacks?
  • Vending machine snacks and drinks
      • Eat this: (yogurt, fruit, fruit juice, nuts, low-fat cookies, pita chips)
        • Snacks with low sugar and fat content
        • Snacks with some nutritional value
      • Not that: (soda, regular cookies, chips, candy bars)
        • Snacks high in fats and sugars
        • Snacks that are nutrient-poor
drink this not that
Drink This Not That

8 oz juice

12 oz soda



(Nutritiondata.com, n.d.)

  • Schools are on the right track with the change to healthier lunch programs
  • Healthy eating reduces the risk for developing obesity and chronic diseases
  • Healthy eating also enhances academic performance
helpful sites
Helpful Sites

United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Inside the pyramid. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/index.html:This site provides guidance on recommended daily intake for each food group.

Eat fit. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2009 from http://eatfit.ucdavis.edu/levelone/whatis.html:This site was developed to challenge and guide 5th-9th graders in developing healthy eating habits, as well as physical fitness activities.

Nutrition Data. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2009, from http://www.nutritiondata.com/: This site provides detailed information on the nutritional content of a variety of foods.


American Diabetes Association (2009). It is time to stop diabetes. Retrieved October 12, 2009, from http://www.diabetes.org/for-media/pr-is-it-time-to-stop-diabetes.jsp

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Availability of less nutritious snack foods and beverages in secondary schools ---selected states, 2002—2008. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, 58, p. 1-4. Retrieved October 12, 2009, fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm58e1005a1.htm?s_cid=mm58e1005a1_e

references cont d
References cont’d

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2007. Retrieved October 9, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2007.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved October 12, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/index.html

Florence, M., Asbridge, M. & Veugelers, P. (2008). Diet quality and academic performance. Journal of School Health, 78(4), 209-215. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119393960/PDFSTART

references cont d22
References cont’d

Institute of Medicine of National Academies. (2009). Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity. Retrieved October 12, 2009, from http://iom.edu/en/Reports/2009/ChildhoodObesityPreventionLocalGovernments.aspx

Nutrition Data. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2009, from http://www.nutritiondata.com/

Shilts, M., Lamp, C., Horowitz, M., Townsend, M. (2009). Pilot study: EatFit impacts sixth graders’ academic performance on achievement of mathematics and English education standards. Abstract retrieved October 19, 2009, from http://www.jneb.org/article/PIIS1499404608006921/abstract

references cont d23
References cont’d

United States Census Bureau. (2009). State & County QuickFacts. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html

United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Inside the pyramid. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/index.html

United States Department of Agriculture. (2000) Menu planning in the national school lunch program. Retrieved October 19, 2009, from http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/menu/menu_planning.doc

references cont d24
References Cont’d

United States Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from http://www.health.gov/DietaryGuidelines