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Beware of “psychology student’s disease”. Psychological Disorders. Anxiety Disorders. Anxiety – vague feelings of apprehension and nervous Specific Anxiety Disorders:

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Anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders

  • Anxiety – vague feelings of apprehension and nervous

    Specific Anxiety Disorders:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)– persistent, unexplained feelings of apprehension and tenseness (must experience at least 3 symptoms of anxiety – pg. 535)

  • Panic Disorder – sudden episodes of intense, unexplained panic

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) – unwanted, repetitive thoughts and actions (obsessions – thoughts; compulsions – actions) – chart page 539

Specific anxiety disorders cont
Specific Anxiety Disorders (cont.)

  • Phobia– disruptive, irrational fears

    • Agoraphobia – fear of having a panic attack in the wrong place or fear of open spaces (usually stay home)

    • Social phobia– fear of being scrutinized by others, avoid speaking up, eating out, going to parties

    • Other phobias – triskaidekaphobia (number 13), uxoriphobia (one’s wife), Santa Clautrophobia (getting stuck in chimneys), panaphobia (everything), phobophobia (fear of fear), anthophobia (flowers), trichophobia (hair), numerophobia (numbers); page 537

  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder – triggered by stress; reliving a severely upsetting event in unwanted recurring memories and dreams; symptoms include: haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, depression

Explanation for anxiety disorders
Explanation for Anxiety Disorders

  • Behaviorism:

    • Conditioning- can learn to associate certain things w/ anxiety-causing events from past (ex. Baby Albert)

    • Observational Learning – children can learn fears just from watching their parents

    • Reinforcement – people gain release from anxiety by avoiding the situation/thing (reinforces that behavior)

Explanation for anxiety disorders1
Explanation for Anxiety Disorders

  • Biological Factors:

    • Heredity– predispositions for disorders (identical twins raised in different families have similar phobias)

    • Brain Function – higher degree of activity in frontal lobes (planning, attention, processing emotion) of people w/ OCD; amygdala (emotions) different in people w/ phobias

    • Neurotransmitters – OCD linked to low serotonin levels


Mood disorders
Mood Disorders

  • Major Depressive Disorder – experience at least 2 weeks of depressed moods (pg. 543) & diminished interest in activities for no apparent reason; lack of energy; sleep disturbances; possible suicide risk

  • Bipolar Disorder –

    alternate between major

    depression and mania

    (unrealistically optimistic,

    wildly hyper, agitated)

Vincent van Gogh

Mark Twain

Explanations for mood disorders
Explanations for Mood Disorders

  • Social-Cognitive Factors:

    • Learned Helplessness – can produce depression (negative thoughts) & self-fulfilling prophesies

    • Attributions (Explanatory Style) – depressed people are more likely explain bad events as stable (lasting forever), global (affects everything), internal (my fault) – attributions lead to hopelessness & depression

    • Culture – depression less common in collectivist cultures – social supports available, feel less responsible for bad events

Explanations for mood disorders1
Explanations for Mood Disorders

  • Biological Factors:

    • Heredity – Major Depressive Disorder: identical twins - if one has, other has 50 % chance of developing it; only 20 % for fraternal twins; Bipolar (identical twins: 70 percent chance)

    • Brain Function – Major Depressive Disorder: brain is less active during depression (esp. frontal lobes that are active for positive emotions) but more active in manic states

    • Neurotransmitters – Major Depressive Disorder connected w/ low levels of serotonin, dopamine, & norepinephrine

Dissociative disorders general information
Dissociative Disorders: General Information

  • dissociate – to separate or divide

  • Breakdown in a person’s normal conscious experience (loss of memory or identity)

  • Believed by some to be an attempt to escape from part of self that one fears (reduce anxiety)

Dissociative disorders
Dissociative Disorders

  • Dissociative amnesia – memory loss (including basic knowledge of self) as a reaction to specific, stressful events (basically amnesia with no physical cause)

  • Dissociative fugue – extended form of dissociative amnesia; loss of one’s identity is accompanied by travel to a new location

  • Dissociative identity disorder – person is said to exhibit two or more distinct and alternating personalities that take control at different times; usually suffered sever physical, psychological, or sexual abuse as a child; existence is controversial

Dissociative disorders debate
Dissociative Disorders Debate

  • Evidence for: distinct brain states associated w/ different personalities, changes in eye-muscle balance, eye color, scars, handedness, and vision

  • Evidence against: virtually nonexistent outside North America

Schizophrenia general information
Schizophrenia:General Information

  • Not one disorder

  • “Schiz” – break from reality (psychosis)

  • Inappropriate behaviors & emotions

  • word salad – nonsense talks

  • Hallucinations(false perception) – most often auditory, can be visual or tactile

  • Delusions (false beliefs) of:

    • grandeur – you are more

      important than you really are

    • persecution – people are out

      to get you

    • sin or guilt – being responsible for some misfortune

    • influence– being controlled by outside forces “devil”

Schizophrenia disorders
Schizophrenia Disorders

  • Paranoid schizophrenia – delusions , particularly grandeur & persecution; auditory & other hallucinations often support the delusions

  • Catatonic schizophrenia – variations in voluntary movement; alternates between two phases: excitement and stupor (flat emotions & waxy flexibility)

  • Disorganized schizophrenia – bizarre behavior, delusions, and hallucinations; visibly disturbed

  • Undifferentiated schizophrenia – symptoms that are disturbed but are not clearly consistent with other types

Schizophrenia explanations
Schizophrenia Explanations

Biological Factors:

  • Genetics:

    • predisposition – higher rates for people w/ sibling or parent (1 in 10) who has it (1 in 100 in general pop); 1 in 2 if identical twin has it

  • Brain Structure:

    • small amounts of brain tissue & larger fluid-filled spaces

    • thalamus (routes sensory memory) is smaller

  • Brain Function:

    • less activity in frontal lobes

    • 6x normal number of receptor sites for dopamine

  • Prenatal Viruses:

    • viral infection during middle of pregnancy (pg. 565)

Schizophrenia biological explanations
Schizophrenia: Biological Explanations

Schizophrenia explanations1
Schizophrenia Explanations

Psychological Factors:

  • Stress & disturbed family communications–may contribute to the development of schizophrenia (for those have a predisposition)

Personality disorders general information
Personality Disorders:General Information

  • Lasting, rigid patterns of behavior that seriously impair one’s social functioning

  • Usually evident by adolescence

  • The person often does not recognize the problem exists

Personality disorders related to anxiety
Personality Disorders(related to anxiety)

  • Avoidant personalitydisorder – sensitive about being rejected; personal relationships difficult

  • Dependent personality disorder – behave in clingy, submissive ways & display a strong need to have others take care of them

Personality disorders odd or eccentric behaviors
Personality Disorders(odd or eccentric behaviors)

  • Paranoid personality disorder – shows deep distrust of other people; suspiciousness gets in the way of personal relationships

  • Schizoid personality disorder – detached from social relationships; hermits; avoid intimate interactions with others

Personality disorders dramatic or impulsive behaviors
Personality Disorders(dramatic or impulsive behaviors)

  • Borderline personality disorder – instability of emotions, self-image, behavior, and relationships

  • Antisocial personality disorder – (also known as psychopathic or sociopathic) no concern for the rights or feelings of other people; willing to engage in criminal behavior & shows no remorse; occurs more often in males & develops in adolescence ; often charming & clever; difficult to treat