Historical BackgroundWorld War I • a world conflict lasting from 1914 to 1919 • fighting lasted until 1918 • war was fought by the Allies on one side, and the Central Powers on the other • the war had become the second bloodiest conflict in recorded history. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg on 28 June 1914 in Bosnia-Herzegovina brought the tensions between Austria-Hungary and Serbia to a head. This triggered a chain of international events that embroiled Russia and the major European powers. War broke out in Europe over the next thirty-seven days.
Historical BackgroundWorld War I: Economic Effects • Boom in Technology and Industry • Competitive work force • Jobs for women (women’s rights; 19th amendment) • Economic Security
The Roaring 20’s • 1st Radio Station on air • Boom in automobile production • Radical change in women’s fashions (flappers)/ Coco Chanel popularizes the “little black dress” • General carefree feeling of security, due to America’s flourishing economy • Flourishing film industry
The Great Depression • began in October 1929, when the stock market in the United States dropped rapidly • thousands of investors lost large sums of money and many were wiped out, lost everything; many committed suicide • this 'crash' led us into the Great Depression • longest and worst period of high unemployment and low business activity in modern times. • banks, stores, and factories were closed and left millions of Americans jobless, homeless, and penniless. Many people came to depend on the government or charity to provide them with food.
Modernist Authors • Robert Frost • e.e. cummings • Zora Neale Hurston • Langston Hughes • Claude McKay • Willa Cather • Katherine Anne Porter
Literary Characteristics • Free Verse- form of poetry with no set meter patterns, rhyme, or any other musical pattern • Juxtaposition-The arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, rhetorical effect, suspense, or character development • Stream of Consciousness • Experimentation in form and content • Themes involving disillusionment
The Harlem Renaissance Explosion of African American art, literature, music, and philosophy • Great Migration- Migration of African Americans from the South to the North, due to the destruction of crops by the bo weevil. • Precursor to the Civil Rights Movement
Harlem is vicious Modernism. BangClash. Vicious the way it's made, Can you stand such beauty. So violent and transforming. - Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones)
Philosophical Divide Marcus Garvey W.E.B Dubois Sociologist; Co-founder of the NAACP; historian, writer Believed in desegregation and equal rights for African Americans in the United States • Leader of the “Back to Africa” Movement Believed African Americans should not assimilate to American cultural norms; rather, they should focus on going back to the motherland
Jazz Age • Duke Ellington • Louis Armstrong • Ella Fitzgerald • Josephine Baker • Billie Holiday
Harlem Art Aaron Douglas Primitivism Jacob Lawrence