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Consumer orientated Sustainable Water Service Delivery , A Reality or Fata Morgana? Conference Paper Authors : Brecht Mommen & Pravin More. Table of content. Background Odisha Case Study Recommendations. Background. Drinking water supply schemes have suffered from poor upkeep .

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Consumer orientated Sustainable Water Service Delivery,

A Reality or Fata Morgana?

Conference Paper

Authors: Brecht Mommen & Pravin More

Table of content
Table of content

  • Background

  • Odisha Case Study

  • Recommendations


  • Drinking water supply schemes have suffered from poor upkeep.

  • Responsibility for operation and maintenance (O&M) of water supply schemes lies with the PRIs but in many states this responsibility is poorly defined and not supported by transfer of adequate funds and trained manpower to the PRIs.

  • PRIs and Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) are not willing to take over completed schemes in which they were not involved at the planning and implementation stages.

  • Inadequate water resource investigation, improper design, poor construction, substandard materials and workmanship and lack of preventive maintenance also lead to rapid deterioration of water supply schemes.

    Faster, Sustainable and more Inclusive Growth, Draft Approach to the Twelfth Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, Government of India, August 2011.

Distribution in access
Distribution in Access

Source: NFHS 2006

Source: Census 2011

Water quality
Water Quality

Koraput water quality lab findings 2010:

Out of 1598 samples, only 9% of the samples were found to be chemically & microbiologically safe

Costs and financing existing sources
Costs and Financing;Existing Sources

  • Currently, O&M cost are based on estimates from the 1980s,

  • O&M costs long term predictions can assist planning and monitoring

  • Costs elements are;

    • Operating costs, overhead and monitoring

    • Annual and periodic replacements

    • Human resource

    • Depreciation (?)

  • Influenced by; life span, technology type, serving population, ground water level etc.


Source: WDR 2004

Order/ circular, instruction




Human resource capacity
Human Resource Capacity

The lack of capacities of the PRI members is one of the root causes of their limited capacity to maintain their water sources

Faster, Sustainable and more Inclusive Growth, Draft Approach to the Twelfth Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, Government of India, August 2011.

Human resource capacity1
Human Resource Capacity;

RWS&S posts: vacancies and posts filled; Source: RWS&S figures May 2012

  • High number of vacancies within RWS&S structures

  • JE II for O&M under PRI

  • Ratio of sources per SEMs is increasing- more work with less

  • Lack of job descriptions and competency framework within RWS&S

  • Capacity building institutes of SIRD, IGTC and KRC provide trainings for PRI and RDD departments- however capacity building seems to be entail ad-hoc trainings and lack a systematic approach

Ratio # sources per SEM:

Source: RDD annual reports

Water quality part ii sanitary survey
Water Quality part II:Sanitary Survey

A tool to assess the risks related to Water Quality

Sanitary survey results in koraput
Sanitary survey results in Koraput

  • Koraput field findings of 1593 samples during 2010:

  • High prevalence of risks, more than half the sources have more has 5 risks

  • Not a clear relation between the number of risks present and contamination

Risks self assessment
Risks Self Assessment

  • Self assessment can be done by community/ PRI

  • Action plans can be guided & monitored by self-assessment

Spare part supply chains & Private Sector

  • Government led supply lines:

    • Spares procured from private sector at block level, using fixed tariffs set CE RWS&S

  • A tri-party MoU between PRI-RWS&S and SEMs

    • small parts given to SEM,

    • big parts kept at the block

  • Regular O&M trough SEMs

    • SEMs receive a flat rate for regular O&M and

    • variable fee for unregularly O&M

Supply lines public vs private
Supply lines: public vs private

  • Source: Narkevic 2005


Supply lines
Supply lines

Rethink the supply lines to reach the optimum in

  • Transparency: what being procured at which price and did it reach the place?

  • Availability/ accessibility: access to spares should not cause delays in repairs

  • Cost Effectiveness

Innovative contracts
Innovative contracts

Source: A. Oyo, Spare Part Supplies for Hand pumps in Africa RWSN/ WSP 2006


  • Adopt a Life Cycle Service approach;

    • Develop Costs and Financing overviews

    • Determine the service levels

    • Decisions based on life cycle costs by one department

  • Review the positioning of institutions to achieve sustainable service delivery

  • Strengthen a holistic Human Resources approach by a comprehensive competency frameworks and capacity building plans

  • Strengthen accountability by decentralization and the short route of accountability.

  • Improve water quality by;

    • Adopt the sanitary survey checklist to develop and monitoring water safety plans at community and GP level,

    • Align water quality monitoring with the water service providers

  • Explore improved Spare part Supply lines & Innovative Service Models