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Daily Grammar Practice Wednesday Write out this week’s sentence and identify *Each clause as independent or dependent *The sentence type as simple, compound, or complex *The sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory. Thursday Write out this week’s sentence and add capitalization and punctuation including *End punctuation *Commas *Semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks Friday Use this week’s sentence to fill in the diagram structure. Turn in your completed sentences for each day of the week. Monday Write out this week’s sentence and identify the part of speech of each word as: *Noun – common, proper, possessive *Pronoun – personal, interrogative, possessive, demonstrative, indefinite *Verb – helping, linking, action, tense *Adverb *Adjective *Preposition *Conjunction – coordinating, subordinating, correlative *Interjection Tuesday Write out this week’s sentence and identify the sentence parts. *Subject – complete, simple *Complete Predicate *Verb (simple predicate) – transitive, intransitive *Compliment – direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective *Appositive,/Appositive Phrase *Object of the Preposition *Prepositional Phrase Monday Noun – person, place, thing, or idea Common Noun – begins with lower case letter Proper Noun – begins with capital letter Possessive Noun – shows ownership Pronoun – takes the place of a noun Personal Pronoun – refers to a “self” – I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, it, us, them, my, your, his, her, its, mine, yours, our, their, ours, theirs Interrogative Pronoun – asks a question – which, whose, what, whom, who Demonstrative Pronoun – demonstrates which one – this, that, these, those Indefinite Pronoun – do not refer to a definite person or thing – each, either, neither, few, some, all, most, several, few, many, none, one, someone, no one, everyone, anyone, somebody, nobody, everybody, anybody, more, much, another, both, any, other, etc. Adverb – modifies adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs – tells how, when, where, to what extent – not is always an adverb. Adjective – modifies nouns and pronouns – tells which one, how many, what kind Article – adjectives a, an, the Proper Adjective – proper noun acting as an adjective Preposition – shows the relationship between a noun and some other word in the sentence – across, after, against, around, at, before, below, between, by, during, except, for, from, in, of, off, on, over, since, through, to, under, until, with, according to, because of, instead of, etc. Conjunction – joins words, phrases, and clauses Coordinating – FANBOYS – for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Subordinating – start dependent clauses – after, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as if, etc. Correlative – not only/but also, neither/nor, either/or, both/and Verb – shows action or helps to make a statement Action – shows action Linking – links two words together – is, be, am, are, was, were, been, being, appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste Helping – “helps” an action verb or linking verb – these can be helping verbs – is, be, am, are, was, were, been, being, will, would, can, could, shall, should, may, might, must, have, has, had, do, does, did, ought Tense – present – happening now past – happened previously future – will happen in the future present perfect – have or has plus a past participle past perfect – had plus a past participle future perfect – will have or shall have plus a past participle Tuesday Complete Subject – part of the sentence about which something is being said, the doer of the action Simple Subject – main word or group of words in the complete subject -must be a noun, pronoun, gerund, or infinitive -can never be a prepositional phrase -There and here are never the subject of a sentence - The subject can be an “understood you” Complete Predicate – part of the sentence that says something about the subject Verb (Simple Predicate) – transitive – takes a direct object intransitive – does not take a direct object All linking verbs are intransitive Complement – completes the meaning of the subject and verb Direct Object – a noun or pronoun, follows an action verb, answers the question “what?” Indirect Object – a noun or pronoun, comes before a direct object, answers the question “to or for whom or what?” Predicate Nominative – a noun or pronoun, follows linking verb and renames the subject, answers the question “what?” Predicate Adjective – an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject, answers the question “what?” Appositive/Appositive Phrase – noun or pronoun that follows and renames another noun or pronoun Object of the Preposition – follows a preposition and tells “what?” Prepositional Phrase – group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun, can act as an adjective or an adverb
Wednesday Clauses – each clause must have a subject and a verb Independent Clause – can usually stand alone, also called the main clause Dependent Clause – can never stand alone, also called the subordinate clause Simple Sentence – one independent clause Compound Sentence – two or more independent clauses Complex Sentence – one independent clause plus one or more dependent clauses Declarative Sentence – makes a statement and ends in a period Interrogative Sentence – asks a question and ends in a question mark Imperative Sentence – gives a command and ends in a period Exclamatory Sentence – expresses strong feelings and ends in an exclamation point *A declarative, interrogative, or imperative sentence can be exclamatory if it expresses strong feelings and ends in an exclamation point • Thursday • Capitalization – proper nouns, proper adjectives, first • word of each sentence • Apostrophe – to make words possessive, to make • contractions - if the word is plural and ends in s, add • the apostrophe only – if the word is singular and ends • in s, add an apostrophe s (‘s) • Underling or Italicizing – These are the same thing • Use for titles of long things: newspapers, magazines, • CDs, movies, novels, plays, musical compositions, etc. • Use for names of ships, planes, trains, and artwork. • Use for foreign expressions. • Quotation Marks – • Use for titles of short things: short stories, poems, songs, • articles, episodes of television shows, etc. • Use to quote dialogue and words used from other sources • Commas and periods are always placed inside the closing • quotation marks • Colons and semicolons always go outside closing • quotation marks • Use single quotation marks to enclose quotes within quotes • Commas – are used between the following: • adverb dependent clause, independent clause • If it rains, we’ll go inside. • independent clause, coordinating conjunction independent clause • Joe likes pizza, but Fred likes tacos. • independent clause; independent clause • Joe likes pizza; Fred likes tacos. • introductory participial phrase, • Running down the hall, he tripped and fell. • introductory prepositional phrase, • After English class, we go to lunch. • , nonessential appositive, • We read The Great Gatsby, a novel, in class. We read the novel The Great Gatsby in class. • , nonessential adjective clause, • Jane, who drives a red car, is nice. All students who skip school should be suspended. • items, in, series • Please buy apples, oranges, and bananas. • I like the warm, fuzzy, blanket. • , noun of direct address, • Tom, would you hand me the phone? • Please don’t sit there, Sue. • day of the week, month date, year, • The baby is expected on Sunday, February 27, 2009, in Georgia. • city, state, • We moved to Douglasville, Georgia, in 1997. • introductory word, • Well, I hope these rules come in handy. • However, you must use them. • , interrupter, • These rules, I think, will help you if you use them. Friday s v s lv pn s hv av do Skunks stink io op s av do Ansley did give train Boys like cars friend is artist Beck wheels s lv pa Girls are nice Compound Parts went Joe threw s (appos) av do Joe Joe school ball went Jeff caught took test Jeff school Racquel(sister) likes cats Clauses – Connect independent clauses at verbs. Connect dependent clauses to what they describe. He likes science we do homework but I like math we will eat dinner art art prep. modifier modifier modifier modifier the with an My brilliant blue extremely and to and and the modifier modifier and to a really Tim’s our After