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Supercritical Fluid Extraction. Intermolecular Forces. Dipole-Dipole Interactions London Dispersion Forces Hydrogen Bonding. Dipole-Dipole Interactions. Some molecules have an uneven distribution of charge; these are called polar molecules.

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Presentation Transcript
intermolecular forces
Intermolecular Forces
  • Dipole-Dipole Interactions
  • London Dispersion Forces
  • Hydrogen Bonding
dipole dipole interactions
Dipole-Dipole Interactions
  • Some molecules have an uneven distribution of charge; these are called polar molecules.
  • Polar molecules attract one another when the partial positive charge on one molecule is near the partial negative charge on another molecule
london dispersion forces
London Dispersion Forces
  • Instantaneous uneven electron distributions in a molecule can cause induced dipole-dipole effects called London Dispersion Forces.
hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen Bonding
  • By far the strongest intermolecular force
  • A hydrogen atom in a polar bond can experience in attractive force with a neighboring Electronegative atom.
  • This is especially applicable when a Hydrogen atom and highly electronegative atom are bonded in a molecule; one of the most polar bonds known.
energy of solvation
Energy of Solvation
  • The energy of forces between the molecules of the solute are in contest with the energy of forces between molecules of solute and solvent.
  • Also added to the Energy of solvation is the energy needed to make a cavity in the solvent for each solute molecule to be surrounded.
carbon dioxide
Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon Dioxide is used in Supercritical fluid studies because it’s critical point is in an easily reached range.
  • At its normal Gaseous state Carbon Dioxide is an extremely bad solvent, but as a liquid it has much better solvent capabilities.
supercritical fluid
Supercritical Fluid
  • Both Gas and liquid phases have the same densities in this range.
  • Carbon Dioxide is normally used since it’s critical point is at 73.8 bar and 31.1 degree Celsius, a very easily reached condition

Two Separate phases of

Carbon Dioxide

One Supercritical Phase

Of Carbon Dioxide

slide10
Uses
  • Decaffeinating coffee as well as Sewage Treatment.
  • Control over Density, and Solvation.
  • Differentiates between enantiomers, paramount in producing medicines.
experiment purpose
Experiment Purpose
  • Show proof that a tailor made molecule could be made to enhance extraction.
  • Solves the problem of low extraction results that plagues CO2 extraction.
experiment setup
Experiment Setup
  • Uses a CO2 extraction device made in the lab to run super critical CO2 through a powder.
  • After the CO2 is bubbled through Methanol and this solution is run in a HPLC to discover the contents.
  • Different mixtures of chemicals are extracted to see how the chemicals affect each other’s solvation.
results
Results
  • Certain interactions cause a decent increase in product:
  • Pi-Pi benzene ring interaction
  • Hydrogen bonding between the molecules
  • Why?
the end

THE END

Any Questions?