Learning Attributes and Relations

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# Learning Attributes and Relations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Learning Attributes and Relations. Ontology Learning from Text Philipp Cimiano , Chapter 7. 7.1 Common Approaches. Collocations Syntactic Dependencies Lexico -syntactic patterns (Hearst, 1992) Road Map: Learning Attributes Learning the Appropriate Generalization Level for Relations

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### Learning Attributes and Relations

Ontology Learning from Text

Philipp Cimiano, Chapter 7

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7.1 Common Approaches
• Collocations
• Syntactic Dependencies
• Lexico-syntactic patterns (Hearst, 1992)
• Learning Attributes
• Learning the Appropriate Generalization Level for Relations
• Learning Qualia Structures

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7.2 Learning Attributes
• Attribute = a relation with a datatype as range
• Learn name, domain, and range

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7.3 Learning Relations from Corpora
• Based on verbal expressions
• Generalization of argument wrt taxonomy
• Statistical measures for generalization
• Approach:
• Extract verb frames
• Generalize verb frames – statistical measures:
• Conditional probability
• Pointwise mutual information
• X2 measure

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7.4 Learning Qualia Structures from the Web
• Aristotle’s four basic factors or causes:
• the material cause – made of
• the agentive cause – source of creation or change
• the formal cause – form or type
• the final cause – purpose, intention, or aim
• Pustejovsky (1991): four roles in qualia structure:
• constitutive – parts or components
• agentive – verb, action brings into existence
• formal – type information
• telic – purpose or function

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7.5 Related Work
• Madche and Staab (2000) – generalized association rules algorithm
• Kavalec and Svátek (2005) – label verbs as “above expectations”
• Gamallo et al. (2002) – map syntactic dependencies to semantic relations
• Ciaramita et al. (2005) – learn conceptual relations from the GENIA corpus
• Heyer et al. (2001) – derive conceptual relations from corpus collocations and heuristics
• Ogata and Collier ( 2004) – relations based on patterns similar to Hearst + reasoning

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

more Related Work
• Yamaguchi (2001) – WordNet pruning + Schuetze’sword space method with word 4-grams
• Buitelaar et al. (2004) – mapping with slots for domain and range, manual inspection
• Pesio and Almuhareb ( 2005) – six categories of attributes, train a classifier
• Yamada and Baldwin (2004) – learn telic and agentive relations from corpora, dependencies
• Claveau et al. (2003) – Inductive Logic Programming to find qualia verbs
• Pustejovsky et al. (1993) – acquire relations from corpora, statistics and theoretical lexicon principles

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7.6 Conclusion and Open Issues
• Use adjectives and WordNot to learn attributes
• Statistical learning of slots for verbs
• Learning qualia structures
• Learning from noun phrases?
• Meaning of qualia roles?
• Distinguish word senses?
• Gold standard for qualia structures?
• Calculus to reason on partial results?
• Constrain according to linguistic principles?

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL