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Learning Attributes and Relations. Ontology Learning from Text Philipp Cimiano , Chapter 7. 7.1 Common Approaches. Collocations Syntactic Dependencies Lexico -syntactic patterns (Hearst, 1992) Road Map: Learning Attributes Learning the Appropriate Generalization Level for Relations

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learning attributes and relations

Learning Attributes and Relations

Ontology Learning from Text

Philipp Cimiano, Chapter 7

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7 1 common approaches
7.1 Common Approaches
  • Collocations
  • Syntactic Dependencies
  • Lexico-syntactic patterns (Hearst, 1992)
  • Road Map:
    • Learning Attributes
    • Learning the Appropriate Generalization Level for Relations
    • Learning Qualia Structures

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7 2 learning attributes
7.2 Learning Attributes
  • Attribute = a relation with a datatype as range
  • Learn name, domain, and range

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7 3 learning relations from corpora
7.3 Learning Relations from Corpora
  • Based on verbal expressions
  • Generalization of argument wrt taxonomy
  • Statistical measures for generalization
  • Approach:
    • Extract verb frames
    • Generalize verb frames – statistical measures:
      • Conditional probability
      • Pointwise mutual information
      • X2 measure

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7 4 learning qualia structures from the web
7.4 Learning Qualia Structures from the Web
  • Aristotle’s four basic factors or causes:
    • the material cause – made of
    • the agentive cause – source of creation or change
    • the formal cause – form or type
    • the final cause – purpose, intention, or aim
  • Pustejovsky (1991): four roles in qualia structure:
    • constitutive – parts or components
    • agentive – verb, action brings into existence
    • formal – type information
    • telic – purpose or function

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7 5 related work
7.5 Related Work
  • Madche and Staab (2000) – generalized association rules algorithm
  • Kavalec and Svátek (2005) – label verbs as “above expectations”
  • Gamallo et al. (2002) – map syntactic dependencies to semantic relations
  • Ciaramita et al. (2005) – learn conceptual relations from the GENIA corpus
  • Heyer et al. (2001) – derive conceptual relations from corpus collocations and heuristics
  • Ogata and Collier ( 2004) – relations based on patterns similar to Hearst + reasoning

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

more related work
more Related Work
  • Yamaguchi (2001) – WordNet pruning + Schuetze’sword space method with word 4-grams
  • Buitelaar et al. (2004) – mapping with slots for domain and range, manual inspection
  • Pesio and Almuhareb ( 2005) – six categories of attributes, train a classifier
  • Yamada and Baldwin (2004) – learn telic and agentive relations from corpora, dependencies
  • Claveau et al. (2003) – Inductive Logic Programming to find qualia verbs
  • Pustejovsky et al. (1993) – acquire relations from corpora, statistics and theoretical lexicon principles

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL

7 6 conclusion and open issues
7.6 Conclusion and Open Issues
  • Use adjectives and WordNot to learn attributes
  • Statistical learning of slots for verbs
  • Learning qualia structures
  • Learning from noun phrases?
  • Meaning of qualia roles?
  • Distinguish word senses?
  • Gold standard for qualia structures?
  • Calculus to reason on partial results?
  • Constrain according to linguistic principles?

Cimiano Chapter 7 - PL