Collective Intelligence: from ants to neurons. “Dumb parts, properly connected into a swarm, yield to smart results”. IFAE-Thursday Meeting, 22nd February 2007. Estel Pérez. What is this all about?.
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“Dumb parts, properly connected into a swarm, yield to smart results”
IFAE-Thursday Meeting, 22nd February 2007
A single neuron in the human brain can respond only to what the neurons connected to it are doing, but all of them together can be Albert Einstein."By Deborah M. Gordon (Stanford University)
where simple units together
behave in complicated ways.
A termite "cathedral" mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature.
"The best possible way for ants to find anything is to have an ant everywhere all the time, because if it doesn't happen close to an ant, they are not going to know about it. Of course there are not enough ants in the colony, so the ants have to move around in a pattern that allows them to cover space efficiently"
The pheromone concentration on trailB will increase at a higher rate than on A, and soon the ants on route A will choose to follow route B
Since most ants will no longer travel on route A, and since the pheromone is volatile, trail A will start evaporating
Only the shortest route will remain!Natural ants: How do they do it?
(2) Ants use the short path
(3) Ants get to find the shortest pathNatural ants: Experiments
and artificial ants:
only after a solution has
If a salesman starts at point A, and if the distances between every pair of points are known, what is the shortest route which visits all points and returns to point A?Traveling Salesman Problem
practical importance. Example:
printed circuit manufacturing:
scheduling of a route of the drill
machine to drill holes in a PCB.
“Individual members can profit from the discoveries and previous experience of other members during the search for food. This advantage can become decisive , overweighting the disadvantages of competition for food”
For each particle Calculate fitness value If the fitness value is better than the best fitness value (pBest) in history set current value as the new pBest End Choose the particle with the best fitness value of all the particles as the gBest
For each particle Calculate particle velocity according equation (a) Update particle position according equation (b) End
While maximum iterations or minimum error criteria is not attained
Thank you for your attention